Common enemies of shrimp farming: Growth retardation, EHP and White feces syndrome

What are the different challenges and the future of sustainable shrimp farming?

The shrimp farming industry globally faces numerous challenges, most importantly various viral, bacterial and fungal diseases; also, the need for additional, novel ingredients that will be needed to manufacture and support growing demand for aquafeeds; and environmental impact, markets, and investment issues.

EHP a risk factor for other shrimp diseases

The intracellular, hepatopancreatic microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) has been reported in cultured black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei) in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and India, as well as other Southeast Asia countries. EHP causes growth retardation and increased size variability, and in more advanced stages, infected shrimp have soft shells and exhibit lethargy, reduced feeding, and empty midguts. Currently, EHP is diagnosed by histology, In-situ hybridization, and PCR.

Some Asian shrimp farming countries have seen an increase of bacterial problems contributing to hepatopancreas Vibriosis, which has been “running mortality syndrome” and “white feces syndrome (WFS).” Shrimp affected by these conditions display septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN).

In many cases, the sizes of black tiger prawns, as well as whiteleg shrimp, do not grow at the end of the first farming month to the beginning of the second month. This issue makes shrimp farmers concerned and causes difficulties in farming.

Which are the reasons why shrimp don’t grow or grow slowly?

  • Poor quality of breeds and heterogeneous breeds
  • Shrimp stunted due to Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and EHP diseases
  • Shrimp has intestinal diseases or white feces disease
  • Shrimp farming with high density but not meeting the technical requirements
  • Unsuitable or unguaranteed feed
  • Quality of pond environment, including water quality and pond bottoms
  • Using antibiotics inappropriately leading to its resistance

Therefore, depending on each specific cause of slow growth in shrimp, farmers must have timely measures.

Experience shows that good treatment of pond bottoms, secured water sources, safe farming areas, and selected high-quality breeds can help avoid slow growth in shrimp. Along with that, farmers also need to know how to manage good water quality, clean pond bottom, minimize pathogens that have the opportunity to penetrate into ponds, and choose reputable shrimp feed to prevent stunting.

Rehpairo, amino acid optimizer for healthy hepatopancreas in shrimp

Rehpairo, is a revolutionary state of the art feed supplement with extraordinary antimicrobial properties. It is meticulously designed for shrimps to battle against EHP, HPM and WFS affected shrimps.

Diseases and aqua feed ingredients are undoubtedly the most important challenges currently faced by the shrimp industry. Organically originated, environment-friendly and easily administrable feature of the supplement makes it one of its kind special. Rehpairo has concurred over its peers and proved in all challenging conditions during rigorous experimental trials like ABW gain, Survival rate, Salinity and Hardness, Stocking Density, pH, the amino and fatty acid profile of the shrimp flesh for its enhanced nutritional characteristics.

Above all, different variants of Rehpairo have also been upgraded for HERB Shrimp farming with additive sensory and color.

Follow   up   on   the   linked   page   to   get   more   info   on   Rehpairo   or   write   us   on

Advance newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

Colostrum management and the composition of fluid fed; the use of various additives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and proteins from hyperimmunized eggs or plasma proteins; and housing can all influence the health of newborn calves.

Which are The Common Culprits of Neonatal Calves?

It is well documented that dairy calves are extremely susceptible to enteric diseases and mortality during the first few weeks of life. The latest reports from the USDA’s National Animal Health and Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2007) report that the national mortality rate of heifer calves from 48 hour of life to weaning is approximately 7.8 to 10.8 %.

Producer perceived records indicate that scours account for 56.5 to 60.5 % of all pre-weaned deaths. Approximately ¼ of all pre-weaned calves are therapeutically treated for scours, and the major causes of death from scours are either dehydration or the pathogen gains access to the blood and causes septicemia. The high incidences of disease indicate we have much to learn about improving gastrointestinal disease resistance among pre-weaned calves. In addition, some data indicates that early life nutrition can have long-term impacts on leukocyte responses and disease resistance.

How does Neonatal Care Compound Long Term Profits?

It is well known that calves are future herd, may it be for dairy or beef market. Thus, the performance of calves is totally dependent on the nutritional and managemental practices during first three months. It plays a key role in the economy of farms because they increase operating costs and if compromised it can adversely affect long-term productivity of the animal. The maintenance of calf health and optimizing their growth are pivotal objectives especially at early stages of life.

Newborn calves are immunologically naive at birth. They have had no chance to enhance adaptive immunity by ‘‘experience’’ because of the protective environment in the womb, which also limits the activation of phagocytes and their entry into the tissues. The ingestion of colostrum is essential for providing neonates with immunologic protection during at least the first 2 to 4 weeks of life. Colostrum is composed primarily of antibodies, cytokines, and leucocytes. Calves that ingest colostrum shortly after birth have significant concentrations of immunoglobulin in serum, whereas colostrum-deprived calves have only trace amounts of immunoglobulin during the first 3 days of life.

Use of Feed Additives in Early Calf Nutrition

The developmental immaturity of the immune system of the neonatal calf presents a predisposing factor toward increased morbidity and mortality. As nutrition of calf is crucial many feed additives are being used in calf’s diet. With the restricted use or ban of dietary antimicrobial agents the trend is towards more ‘natural’ animal production systems. Phytochemicals,
prebiotics, probiotics with rich sources of essential vitamins and minerals can influence microorganisms through an anti-microbial activity or through a favorable stimulation of the microflora and favors healthy growth.

Neostart, Necessary Neonatal Care

Why Neostart? It is a supplement exclusively designed for newborn calves to fulfil all essential nutrients’ need. When calves are stressed, their appetite and digestibility often decrease; meanwhile, the nutritional demand of their growing bodies increases. This leads to the loss of appetite, depressed activity, suppressed immune system, reduced growth rates and digestive disorders. This is the sensitive period for the calves where Neostart plays a key role.

What does Neostart contain? Energy in the form of digestible sugars and essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, multi-strain probiotics to seed digestive tract with beneficial microflora, prebiotics and natural colostrum. Its indications are at birth and weaning, during stress and transportation, post-antibiotic therapy, and in digestive disorders in young ones. It is available in powder and paste form for reliable and easy administration.

Kindly follow Neostart link to go onto the literature of the product and write us on for more details.

The Fundamentals of Swine Respiratory Diseases, You Should Know!

The Fundamentals of Swine Respiratory Diseases, You Should Know!

Respiratory diseases in pigs is undoubtedly the most important health concern for swine producers today. It is the leading cause of mortality in the nursery and grower-finisher stages of pigs, surveyed by National Animal Health Monitoring System. Recent studies have reported prevalence of pneumonia in half of the population at slaughter.

What are the primary problems considered in swine industry worldwide?

Respiratory infections in swine is often the result of a combination of primary and opportunistic pathogens. Adverse environmental and managemental conditions play an important role in the respiratory disease complex. Porcine Respiratory Complex is the interaction of viral, bacterial, and adverse managemental conditions, describes pneumonia of multiple etiology causing clinical disease and failure to gain weight later in the finishing process (15 to 20 weeks of age).

In Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), depending on PRRD virus strain, dose, and immune status, some farms may be sub-clinically infected with the virus while others experience severe reproductive and respiratory disease.


Primary pathogens include Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as the viral agents, such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus and Swine Influenza virus. Common secondary invaders include Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Actinobacillus suis and Salmonella choleraesuis.

Environmental factors that contribute to Swine Respiratory Disease include:

  • Overcrowding
  • Frequent mixing of pigs
  • High humidity
  • Dust
  • High ammonia levels
  • Temperature fluctuation

Working to minimize these factors can help improve pig health.

Relievo, the holistic herbal respiratory relief

It is a combination of phytochemicals having antimicrobial and respiratory stimulant properties. It strengthens defense mechanism and functioning of respiratory system. It alleviates signs and stress in respiratory diseases with its decongestant, antitussive and expectorant actions.

The antient herbal preparation allows respiratory lining to produce healthy mucus to expel the inflammatory and fibrous discharges. Its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory properties give rapid relief which reduces mortalities and maintains optimum performance in swine.

To know more about the product, click on Relievo and write us on for more details.

Vitamin D 3 : Alpha Vitamin for Birds

Vitamin D 3 : Alpha Vitamin for Birds

In fowls, vitamin D is responsible for normal growth, egg production, shell quality, and reproduction. Alpha vitamin D3 (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) is involved in Ca and P absorption in the gut, bone mineralization (bone formation) and demineralization (bone mobilization); Ca and phosphate reabsorption by the kidneys.

Commercial layers are usually maintained indoors, and do not receive enough sunlight to convert 7-dihydrocholesterolin sufficient levels to supply their vitamin D3 requirements. This is why vitamin D is routinely added to layer feeds, which is essential for the maintenance of egg production, eggshell formation, and calcium homeostasis.

Which are the deficiency Diseases of Vitamin D in Birds ?

The two most prominent forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3). Vitamin D3 is an important nutrient for chickens, especially for growing chicks and laying hens.

The inadequacy of vitamin D in birds results in rickets, retarded growth, soft and rubbery beak, hypocalcemia, parathyroid hyperplasia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, a marked expansion of epiphyseal growth plates including cartilage hypertrophy, failure of calcification of cartilage and osteoid, and fibrous osteodystrophy.

In hens, a vitamin D deficiency adversely affects egg production and causes calcium deficiency. The need for vitamin D depends to a large extent on the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The vitamin D needs of poultry are increased several folds by inadequate levels of calcium and (or) phosphorus or by improper ratios of these minerals in the diet.

How Does Vitamin D Metabolize in the Body ?

Cholecalciferol is the most common form of vitamin D added to feeds. After absorption by the intestinal mucosa, it is transported to the liver, where it is hydroxylated in the position 25, resulting in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3). This metabolite is directed to the kidneys and hydroxylated at carbon 1, originating the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 α-D3). Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of a calcium binding protein in the intestine.

Dynamic Alpha, is Bio-enhanced Natural D3 Booster

It is a blend of Phytoconstituents (Natural absorbance enhancers) and contains plant origin metabolites of Vitamin D3. It increases the absorption efficiency of liposoluble vitamin D3 present in the feed of birds. It maintains homeostasis of Ca:P in body, improves bone density, increases egg shell thickness and vitamin D levels of eggs.

Feeding recommendation

  • Layers – 250 – 500 g / tonne of feed
  • Broiler – 250 – 500 g / tonne of feed
  • Breeder – 500 g / tonne of feed OR as directed by Veterinarian/Nutritionist

Mitigating Common Hazards at Poultry Farms, Backing Up The Eradication Program

Mitigating Common Hazards at Poultry Farms, Backing Up The Eradication Program

Over the decades, scientists have been putting grueling efforts to increase the profitability in poultry industry from all possible ways. The results have been fruitful so far as we see double digit growth in the industry every year. However, it is still a challenge to tackle some common infections at the farm level viz E. coli, Salmonella sp, Pasteurella sp, Mycoplasma sp, Compylobacter sp etc.
What are the common ways to prevent disease occurrences at a farm ?
All over the world, the industry fellows are using multi-directed approach to minimize and eradicate the diseases. To mention some at farm; filling cracks and crevasses, placing traps for insects and rodents, consistent cleaning, disinfection, regular monitoring of the shed for infections, biosafety measures, and vaccination schedules.Not so long ago, have researchers found remarkable effects on minimizing pathogenic infections by using ayurvedic phyto-molecules. These herbal compounds not only reduce the chances of disease out-breaks but also build birds’ immunity; have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is cited in many scientific articles that uses of herbs in poultry feed have substantially improved performance of the birds and longevity of the production cycles in layers.

HERBOFLOXIN, A Natural Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin is a unique micro emulsified formulation of phyto-active
ingredients. Its administration is through water which allows it to neutralize water sanitizers and pH. Anti-microbial functions of the herbs such as Thymus vulgaris, Eucalyptus, Syzygium and Citronella, prevents entry of pathogen through water and rapid spread of the infection. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of Herbofloxin helps in healing and recovery.

Essentiolitt, A Litter Amendment System

Essentiolitt is an efficient bioaerosol cleanser; credits to anti-urease action of Essentiolitt for minimizing NH3 release in deep litter systems. It prevents
harmful effects on the birds and reduces ammonia release in the environment. It reduces wetness of the litter and destroys pathogenic microbes in the litter.

Thus, supports biosecurity at the farm. The combination of organic acids and essential oils also acts as an odor control system in the shed. At last, Essentiolitt facilitates the growth of harmless microflora for better litter to manure conversion.
Organic and safe products like Herbofloxin and Essentiolitt are the best
substitute for antibiotic growth promoter in the emerging market. The efficacy of these products has been creating an unique global market in the recent years.
Click on the products to follow links for more information about the products and their recommended doses.

Hidden Profits in the Immune System of Poultry

Hidden Profits in the Immune System of Poultry

While dwelling through the last couple of decades, poultry industry is been thriving incredibly. Beside assimilating profitable traits during selections, immune system is been underestimated; arising to increased susceptibility for pathogens, environmental and managemental factors. The time from hatching to the onset of feeding is a critical period in the development of hatchling chicks. Around 2-5% of hatchlings do not survive this critical post-hatch period because of limited body reserves, and many survivors exhibit stunted growth, inefficient feed utilisation, reduced disease resistance or poor meat yield.

The gut represents an evolving ecosystem crosstalk between the immunity and microbiota. Knowledge on poultry immunity facilitates the development of antibiotic alternative strategies to improve growth potential of poultry. Optimal combinations of various alternatives, coupled with good management and husbandry practices, is the key to maximize performance.

Compromised immunity leading to an increase in the incidence of metabolic disorders, reduced resistance to infectious disease like Marek’s diseases, Egg drop syndrome, Necrotic enteritis, Coccidiosis, Infectious bursal diseases, etc; and higher mortality. In routine practice, some chicks of a hatch may often spend up to 36-48 hours without any access to feed or water. This causes poor viability and retarded growth. Thus, the time from hatching to the onset of receiving nutrition is a critical period in the development of hatchling poultry.

Appropriate nutrition and access to feed immediately after hatch can accelerate yolk utilisation and stimulate the growth and development of immune systems. So, why delay? Providing nutrients immediately post-hatch contributes to poultry enterprise profitability.

NUCLEOVIN, an Immune Optimizer

Our innovative research team has brought a state-of-the-art recipe which fulfils the deficits and modulates immunity directly. NUCLEOVIN is a potential immunomodulator, contains nucleotides, probiotics and vitamin C in its active forms. Numerous experiments on the product have shown highly significant outcomes. It can either be fed for prophylactic purpose as a non-antibiotic growth promoter or along with antidotes during outbreaks and also as a stress reliever.
Action zones of NUCLEOVIN – Immunosuppression: In environmental temperature, diseases, toxicity, vaccination, forced moulting and imbalanced nutrition; Reproductive performance: Fertility, hatchability and egg production.
Improved FCR, enhanced vaccine action, optimum hatchability, fertility, embryo survival and development, improved egg characteristics, reduced toxin stress, improved feed intake and FCR in heat stress, diseases resistance and reduced mortality.
Feeding recommendation
• 1g per litre of drinking water
• 150-250g per tonne of feed
Recommended feeding schedule
Chicks: First 14 days
Broilers: First 4 weeks

Layers: First 4 weeks
• During stress periods until feed intake and production are retained back to normal

A taste and flavor enhancer at its best: Spray Dried Lemon Powder (40%)

From years lemon is being used as one of the best refreshment elements in various drinks. It also enhances the taste of every food item. It is responsible to make everything delicious with its own unique flavor and aroma. There are wide varieties of lemon available in market. For the food
industries there are lemon powders as a replacement of whole lemon. It is nothing but your actual lemon in a powdered form.
Lemon powder is a quick solution in case there are no lemons available or if you want a convenient way to bring lemon flavor instantly without any mess. Most important advantage is that you don’t have to give pain to hands squeezing it and making hands sticky. Just take it mix it and get the original flavor right there.

Challenging Re-emergence of Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry Losses and Severity of Clostridial Toxins

Refraining the use of antibiotics in poultry feed has aggravated outbreaks of Necrotic enteritis (NE) even more often. NE is an acute Clostridium infection characterized by severe necroses of intestinal mucosa. The disease begins suddenly, with a sharp increase in death rate. The disease usually persists in a flock for 5–10 days, and mortality is 50%. The causative agent is the gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens. There are two primary Cl. perfringens types, A and C, associated with NE in poultry.
Pathogenesis and clinical signs
Cl. perfringens is a nearly ubiquitous bacteria readily found in soil, dust, faeces, feed, and used poultry litter. It is also a normal inhabitant of the intestines of healthy chickens and turkeys. The enterotoxaemia that results in NE most often occurs either after a change in the intestinal microflora or from a condition that results in damage to the intestinal mucosa (eg, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis, salmonellosis, parasitic infection, etc).
Chickens at the age of 25 weeks are usually affected, NE is also encountered in hens particularly near the period of the beginning of egg laying or peak egg laying, most commonly associated with coccidiosis. In acute cases, marked congestion of liver, responsible for its dark red to black appearance, is present. Intestinal content is bloody, mixed with necrotic debris and gas bubbles. The diagnosis is based on the distinctive gross lesions. Toxins produced by the bacteria cause damage to the small intestine, liver lesions, and mortality.
While researchers still paving a way to develop a substitute as functional as antibiotics, administration of selected probiotics or competitive cultures has been used successfully to both prevent and treat clinical necrotic enteritis (presumably for prophylactic proliferation of Cl. perfringens).

NOVAPRO, a natural blend of probiotics for digestion and gut health.
The probiotic used in NOVAPRO (viz. Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulans and B. pumilus) are GRAS qualified in the US and qualifies the criteria of QPS as per EFSA for EU countries. They are highly heat stable and forms an endospore to survive extreme environmental conditions of temperature and desiccation.

How does NOVAPRO work as Non-antibiotic Growth Promoter?
Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulans and B. pumilus (Each 5 billion CFU/g) are known for their ability to degrade proteins extra-cellularly. They produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) which helps in inhibition of certain kinds of entero-pathogens which are harmful to poultry. This combination gets quickly established in the gut, provide growth of friendly bacteria, reduces intestinal pH and drives out harmful pathogens like Cl. perfringens, E. coli and Salmonella species. Additionally, the probiotics peptides enhance immune responses preventing the growth of pathogens.

Features and Benefits
• Probiotics stay viable in water for longer duration
• It has proven compatibility with antibiotics, anti-microbial growth promoters, coccidiostats and acidifiers
• Supports gut health and immune system
• Can withstand pH fluctuations from 3.8 to 9.5
• Low inclusion rate, no withdrawal period and can be administered throughout the lifecycle

Feeding Recommendation
1 g per litre of drinking water
150 – 200 g / tone of feed

Healthy Food to Increase Your Immune System

Healthy Food

In today’s world it is very easy to get infected by various types of virus and bacterial infections and get yourself sick. We cannot avoid the sudden illness or infections caused but surely we can boost our immune system which will make our body sustain in such unfavourable conditions.

What should one do to boost immune system?
The answer is in the diet and the food items that you consume. Intake of some of the food items having ingredients like various proteins, fibers, vitamins, amino acids, minerals and other health beneficial elements. Some food ingredients have the capability which strengthen your ability to fight against any disease or viral and thus save your life.

Below are some of the sources that you should consume as immune boosters such as garlic, ginger, blueberries, turmeric, dark chocolates, oily fishes, broccoli, spinach, sweet potato, green tea, sunflower seeds, almonds, oranges, kiwi fruit, oats, chicken, eggs, beans, whole grains, brown rice, yogurt, caffeinated beverages, processed food and many others which are very easy to get in your daily life routine. Acquiring some other habits or improvements in life style can also increase the immunity power such as avoid smoking, maintaining healthy weight, doing exercise, avoid alcohol drinking, get enough sleep, maintaining good oral hygiene and washing hands. Simply you should prefer edibles having contents like vitamin c, vitamin e, zinc, carotenoids, and omega 3 fatty acids. We at Vinayak Ingredients are providing the best quality fruit and vegetable powders and the colorants containing almost all of the necessary health enhancing elements. For more visit us at

Eat Healthy… Stay Immune..!

All you need to know about lean meat production in Swine Industry

In the recent past, the swine industry has gained important and continuous progress from selection for constantly increasing lean muscle gain and decreasing fat deposition, in order to meet the increasing demand of the market and cognizant consumers for quality, tasty and safe meat products.

  • Increased Profitability
  • Improved Carcass Traits
  • Increasing Demand and Market Value

What are the symbolic characteristics of “Lean Meat”?
Lean meat relatively has less fat and cholesterol content, especially in the prime cuts like ham and loin, etc. Larger longissimus muscle areas, longer carcasses, and hypertrophy of the muscle fibers due to less fat deposition. Importantly better organoleptic attributes so do the better market price.
The simplest means to estimate the lean tissue mass in the pigs’ body is the use of B-mode real-time ultrasound equipment. This is the preferred method. However, it requires an accurate relationship between ultrasound measurements (loin-eye area and back-fat thickness).

Factors Intervening the Lean Meat Production
A proper interpretation of lean growth curves is important as different factors like genotype, sex, amino acid or energy intake, and environmental stresses may affect lean growth at different stages of growth. During the grower-finisher phase, the difference in lean growth potential between gilts and barrows is approximately 5% but ranges from 2% to 15% i.e. more lean growth rate in barrows. Between 110 and 176 lb. body weight, the daily lean growth rate is relatively constant in gilts and burrows.

At approximately 176 lb. body weight, the daily lean growth rate starts to decline towards zero when the pig’s mature lean body weight has been reached. Nutrient and energy intake: Sub-optimal intakes of essential nutrients and energy will limit pigs from expressing their lean growth potential. For this reason, practical pig diets are generally over-fortified with relatively inexpensive nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

Furthermore, close attention should be paid to dietary levels of energy, lysine, and the other essential amino acids and to daily feed intakes when managing grower-finisher pigs. META LEAN (Protein Optimizer for High Lean Growth), A Safe Cure for the Intruding Factors.

  • Remarkable Lean Meat Gain
  • Improved Feed Efficiency
  • Globally Accepted
  • 100% Natural Components
  • Intensive Research Originated Product
  • Less Inclusion Levels in the Feed

From a practical standpoint, our exclusive product “META LEAN” integrates the diversity of available genotypes (from the fattest to the leanest), along with production and environmental conditions, to set the optimum conditions for lean growth in swine.

“META LEAN” is the remedy for the observed trend to some degradation of meat quality with intense selection for muscular growth, particularly with regard to technological and organoleptic characteristics, necessitates taking into account these constraints in feeding; whether one considers fat deposition or lean tissue gain (extent of intramuscular fat).

The use of improved pig genetics for higher growth rate and lean meat percentage has led to the deterioration of pig meat quality. “META LEAN” has shown a profound impact on improving meat quality and carcass traits. Several research trials on “META LEAN” have shown positive effects on feed efficiency, protein (muscle) deposition, and reducing fat oxidation, resulting in improved performance and meat quality (color, firmness, marbling, etc). This photogenic feed additive is an effective natural solution with high acceptance by consumers for their safeness and compliance with environmental sustainability.
Feeding Recommendations
1-2 kg per ton of feed or as per veterinarians advise