Biofilm Management In Poultry

Biofilm Management In Poultry

Water is essential in controlling body temperature, supports the immune system, assist in food digestion, and aids in the processing and elimination of body wastes. Regardless of procurement of water, another concern is contamination of water inside the watering systems through a substance called “BIOFILM. It occurs when bacteria attach to the pipe walls in a drinking system, creating a sticky substrate.

Biofilms are commonly defined as attached bacterial colonies of either single or multiple species, encased in an extracellular matrix.

Biofilms support the survival of bacteria in suboptimal conditions and increase resistance to disinfectants, antimicrobial, and antibiotics. To date, it is estimated that 99% of bacteria can grow in biofilms, and it is suggested that for the majority of bacteria, biofilms are the normal mode of existence.

Plant essential oils like Thyme, Eucalyptol, Clove, Citronella, etc. Have been used for hundreds of years as natural medicines to combat a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Several essential oils confer antimicrobial activity by damaging the cell wall and membrane, leading to cell lysis, leakage of cell contents, and inhibition of proton motive force.  In addition, there is evidence that they effectively kill bacteria without promoting the acquisition of resistance.

A blend of all such essential oils is HERBOFLOXIN”-This micro emulsified system;

  • The target zone for Herbofloxin is the gut; it has an antimicrobial effect in the gut due to which there is no biofilm formation.
  • It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria. This action of Herbofloxin in turn provides a natural growth promoter effect in Poultry.
  • Herbofloxin is freely soluble in water and target species include Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter and Clostridium

5 Tips To Combat Bio Aerosols In Poultry

Combat Bio Aerosols In PoultryAerial pollutants in confined animal houses are widely recognized as detrimental to the respiratory health of animals kept in these facilities. Primary and opportunistic microbial pathogens may directly cause infectious and allergic diseases in farm animals, and chronic exposure to some types of aerial pollutants may exacerbate multi-factorial environmental diseases. The key pollutants recognized in the airspace of livestock buildings are particles, including dust, micro-organisms and their toxins, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and more than 100 trace gases such as volatile fatty acids. Under commercial production conditions the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources, with bacteria, toxins, gases and volatile organic compounds adsorbed to them. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol. Their sizes can range from aerodynamic diameters of 0.5 to 100 µm.

How are bio-aerosols formed?

Under commercial production the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources. The chickens produce large amounts of dust as a result of epithelial desquamation, as well as from feed, manure, faeces and litter (Matković et al., 2009). This dust consists of a variety of airborne particles of biological origin, i.e. Bacteria, fungi, endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, 1.3-beta-glucan of fungi, fungal spores and mycelium fragments. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol in which the microorganisms can occur either as liquid droplets or as dry particles.

To prevent this problem in poultry, Vinayak Ingredients has introduced a very effective product called “ESSENTIOLITT POULTRY”. Essentiolitt Poultry is a blend of essential oils which works as a poultry sanitizer and reduces the formation of Bio-aerosols. Its features are as below:

  1. 50% reduced respiratory diseases.
  2. It posses potential as natural agents for airborne bacterial activity inhibitors.
  3. They are ecological products for insect pest control.
  4. Reduction in mortality of birds due to severe respiratory problems.
  5. It is acting as a Bio-security in Farms.

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds - Vinayak IngredientsWater management is the most critical components in a top-performing broiler flock. In high performing flocks, at around 21˚C, cutting edge broilers by and large will consume 1.8 to 2 times more water than feed, in weight. Water consumption will change, contingent upon ecological temperature, feed quality and bird health:

  1. Water consumption increases by 6% for each expansion in 1˚C between 20-32°C.
  2. Water consumption increases by 5% for each expansion in 1˚C between 32-38°C.
  3. Feed consumption diminishes by 1.23% for each expansion in 1˚C over 20°C.

Any considerable change in water utilization should be researched as this may show a water leak, health issues or feed problem. A drop in water consumption is frequently the primary marker of a flock issue. To assess flock performance legitimately we have to know how much water birds are consuming each day.

Large portions of today’s high performance broilers are being brought up in housing built for the broiler of the past. There are numerous alternatives used to guarantee a water volume/stream will address bird issues at high pinnacle request times. Advanced water meters associated with the house controller can screen water consumption on a 24-hour premise as well as in distributed time increases amid the day. This data can figure out whether our water system is keeping up at basic ‘appeal’ times, as when the lights go ahead after a dull period. Knowing this can be extremely useful in finding performance issues on a ranch, particularly one with huge, multi-houses.

The temperature of the water that birds are drinking should also be considered. The perfect water temperature ought to associate with 10-14˚C originating from the source. Water consumed by the birds should not be over 30˚C. In the event that this happens the drinking system ought to be flushed intermittently to look after cooler, fresher water.

Along with temperature and accessibility the quality of water offered to chickens should be considered for proper growth of Broilers. The quality of water depends on several factors such as the presence of bacteria and other microbes, PH, Level of minerals etc. Disinfectants like Chlorine are widely used in the poultry industry for disinfection of water, but it has many disadvantages such as carcinogenicity, pH dependent activity, highly corrosive and irritating substance. To avoid such problems and to improve performance of broilers Vinayak ingredients has launched an excellent product Herbofloxin which is a blend of essential oils effective as Non- antibiotic growth promoter. It is used to replace disinfectants, antibiotics and acidifier used for growth promotion in water.

MOA of Herbofloxin: – It is a micro emulsion when mixed with a water forms nanoemulsion making it easier to penetrate bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. It is stable at 5 to 45 degree Celsius temperature and has long shelf life.

The advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:-

  • More than 10% improvement in weight gain
  • Chlorine free meat
  • Pathogen free meat
  • No antibiotic residue
  • Carcass sanitizer
  • Litter improver

Antibiotics!!! Do we need them?

Antibiotics Do the livestock need them - Vinayak Ingredients

Ever wondered why antibiotics are good, bad or evil? Well if you need an orientation session with the use and misuse of antibiotics, this is your space to read.

We all know definitions are important, so here we go. For a technically sound person the word ‘Antibiotics’ are agents which work against microorganisms. To put it into lay man perspective, these are substances/compounds which kill or slow down the growth of harmful bacteria, fungi or similar bugs that thrive on other living or dead things.  By the end of that “Layman term” explanation we would have understood that there isn’t a layman term for antibiotics and you don’t have to Einstein or for that matter Sheldon your way (Courtesy big bang theory) to understand the science behind antibiotics.

To make things clearer lets classify them into four practical categories (Oh I would love to classify them into seven different ways so that you need to classify the classification types to complicate matters, but this not what we intend to graduate in).

  • Chemically – Molecular structures (Beta lactams, Quinones, Aminoglycosides……)
  • Target microorganisms (Antibacterial, Anti-fungal, Antiprotozoal… )
  • Mechanism of action(Cell wall, enzyme, DNA….)
  • Evolutionary ( 1st generation, 2nd gen, New world )

Use of Antibiotics in the feed industry

Firstly not all antibiotics those are used as feed additives for animals and used in humans for treatment. The importance of this fact is rivaling many issues on banning of antibiotics as feed additives.  We will touch base with this statement again when we deal with the statement of antibiotic resistance. In the livestock industry antibiotics are used primarily for three reasons

  1. Treatment of bacterial, fungal and other infectious diseases.
  2. Prevention of infections , as a precautionary in feed compulsion.
  3. Growth promotion,to improve final body weight of birds raised for meat.

Many antibiotics used in treatment of livestock used for meat purpose are the same antibiotics used in humans. These include a major share of quinolones. Although the figures below in the table reflect otherwise one should also consider that these antibiotics given under the treatment regime are given for a small 4 or 5 day schedule and often used in very small quantities. If proper withdrawal periods are used these antibiotics are excreted from the body of the animal well before slaughter. The table below shows us the volume compartmentalisation of antibiotic use.

Use by volume Humans Animal
Pencilins 44 % 6 %
Cephalasporins 15% 1%
Sulfa 14% 3%
Quinolones 9% less than 1%
Macrolides 5% 4%
Tetracyclines 4% 41%
Ionophores 0% 30%

In the next blog we learn more about antibiotic resistance and how it impacts us …

Anti Antibiotics – The Way Ahead

Anti Antibiotics – The Way Ahead - Vinayak Ingredients

For years together Livestock

Livestock is commonly described as domesticated animals which are raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor works and commodities such as eggs, meat, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

Livestock has been an inseparable part of humanity. The cheapest and most readily available source of protein.

The methods of livestock rearing (livestock farming)  have evolved in leaps

This is clearly evident in the case of the poultry industry. The word broiler is now taken as Cobb or Ross and to keep up with the protein deficit of the world new strains are being introduced to cultivate meat faster and in an efficient way.

In this process several mechanisms have been devised to improve the bird, the environment or the final product. This introduces us to the fields of Breeder genetics, Nutrigenomics, Housing, Management, Bio-security, Carcass traits, Packaging, Logistics and shelf life, all of which try to improve the profitability and the product quality.

The market is full of different feed additives working on the aspects latter to genetic improvement in breeders.

For years antibiotics and specifically antibacterial have been used on a large scale to kick up revenues and cover up management flaws. Pumping in these drugs at these rates has resulted in the pathogenic bacteria being destroyed, but also leads to the whole gastrointestinal micro floral balance instability. The era of misuse of antibiotics began. There are several views, as the use of antibiotics in livestock being good or bad. There are several reasons not to use antibiotics in livestock, the primary not being the antibiotic resistance but yes an important reason. Thus, apart from the common facts that using antibiotics may cause parallel resistance affecting human treatment regimes, it is also important for us to understand the foot print that antibiotics leave on the animal world.

The Livestock production arena is an amalgamation of bacterial opportunistic propagation driven entities. The race is already on between the eradication of these bacteria versus survival responses of these highly adaptive microbes. This is especially when we throw a cocktail of antibiotics on them. Every time zapping a bug with a new bullet does end the life of the bug, but also helps the bug to evolve a better armor, one that is non penetrable by the same bullet.  But why are we focusing on the bullet and not on the gun? Something that the bug may not even see, something that the bug is never exposed to!! The ideal route for restricting the excessive use of antibiotics is thus to improve the management practices on the farm which include impeccable bio-security. As this is not possible in all circumstances the use of anti-infective and growth promoters will always be used as a preventive and a treatment regime for under performing birds. However, we can always use a better trigger mechanism, there is middle way out. Why not use the natural responses of the bird itself fight the average management practices.

To improve the bird’s immunity and to overcome microbial challenges one should focus on certain specialized feed additives. The feed additive market carries an endless list of antibiotic re-placers which can be summarized in the categories of Acidifiers, Probiotics, Prebiotics and Phytobiotics. However, every trigger is only sensitive to a specific environment, a specific bacteria or a narrow mechanism of action. Acidifier resistance is well documented in recent literature, this with pH as low as 2.5 not proving effective against common taboo bacteria as salmonella. Probiotics work mainly in the finisher stages and farms still have to rely on antibiotics to curb the early chick mortality. Moreover, the probiotics work at variable dose with variable outcomes, some proving unsuitable to certain environments and ineffective in certain strains of poultry.  Prebiotics could have been an effective way to tackle the problem only if the cost and dosage would comply. Also, there are various supportive nutrients fuelling the pathogenic bacteria in the gut which easily overcome prebiotics.  What the industry needs is something broad spectrum and natural. An effective Phytobiotic, and yes they work, but nobody wants to rely on a trigger that differs in sensitivity every time you are in a gunfight. What we really need is an effective and reliable Phytogenic antibiotic replacer which uses only standardized herbal Phytoconstituents as ingredients.