Know about Enterococcus infection in Broilers

Enterococcus infection in BroilersEnterococcus cecorum is a Gram-positive bacterium which is a normal intestinal flora in mammals and birds. To date, only clinical cases of infection have been shown in broilers. The age at which the first clinical symptoms become noticeable varies widely. For example, one strain of broiler shows clinical symptoms at very young age (only 7 to 14 days old), while other strain detect no symptoms until by day 48.

Clinical symptoms

Affected birds can display a variety of symptoms, ranging from swollen, inflamed hocks to partial or even complete paralysis of the legs. Mostly the birds are observed sitting with their back arched stretching their legs outward. Therefore, these ultimately die due to lack of food and water. Mortality rate due to these leg problems is approximately 5 to 7 %.

Another typical feature of this enterococcus disease is that it affects male broiler to a much greater extent than hens. This is probably due to faster growth in them, which makes them more susceptible to stress on their bone structure and hence to infection in the bone tissue.

The bacteria predispose site because the 6th thoracic vertebra freely than 5th and 7th vertebrae. This makes 6th thoracic vertebra more susceptible to mechanical stress during growth. The bacteria gain entry for growth due to stress that causes microfratures in these locations.

Prevention and treatment

  • Thorough cleaning and disinfection of thewater pipes plus drinking water testing.
  • It is possible to treat this disease with antibiotics.

However due to problems associated with antibiotic resistance,it is important to start the control of these harmful bacteria at early stages of the poultry production cycle by maintaining balance of Good bacteria over bad bacteria in the poultry gut.  To help the industry in combating this problem we at Vinayak Ingredients(India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche product with a brand name; HERBOFLOXIN”- a blend of essential oils effective as natural non-antibiotic growth promoter. It is a non-antibiotic growth promoter because when birds are subjected to traditionally used antibiotics for a longer time they tend to develop resistance for particular antibiotics and their effect is no longer seen in the control of bacterial infection in the birds. Also these antibiotics produce certain resistance in human who are consuming these poultry species. Where with our ‘non-antibiotic growth promoter- HERBOFLOXIN’ there are no chances of resistance development and also withdrawal period which is necessary with use of traditional antibiotic.

MOA

Herbofloxin contains phyoconstituents of antibacterial nature which target the pathogenic gut bacteria and maintain slightly acidic pH. This slight decrease in the pH helps in colonization by gut commensals and resists pathogenic attachment to the gut wall. Thus improved gastrointestinal microclimate favors better digestibility and uptake of nutrients increasing weight of the poultry birds.

Various other advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows;

  • Complete gut acidification and antibacterial action.
  • Improved egg quality and size.
  • Uniformity in weight of eggs in a particular batch of flogs
  • Ease in transportation of eggs of uniform weight, size and quality.
  • Improved FCR

It is a complete growth promoter for poultry!

How to Control Flies in Poultry Farm (5 Techniques)

How to Control Flies in Poultry Farm - Vinayak IngredientsIt is important to keep control over fly population which may irritate the farm animals and affect their performances. So here are few enlisted techniques which can be utilized to control or prevent flies on poultry farms

Fly Paper :
This is the most conventional technique towards other fly control options. Fly paper do work effectively but it has disadvantage as the fly paper containing hundreds of victim flies stuck can be unsightly and unattractive. Therefore, it has to be regularly removed and replaced with new fly papers which can also be laborious task.

Fly Traps :
The slight modified version of fly paper is the fly trap that is plastic containers with bait inside to lure flies. This is also equally effective, full traps can be ugly and smelly as well.

Misters :
A modern method to keep flies at bay is to install portable fly-spray throughout the farms. The fly spray has an insecticide which can be sprayed every 15 minutes. They are relatively inexpensive and have been tested and proven safe for use near livestock and farm pets.

Predators :
A very natural and eco friendly means to eliminate the types of flies is to use fly predators. Fly predators also known as parasitoids are very tiny and resemble ants with wings. Their sole purpose is to stop the reproductive cycle of flies. Although fly predators do not kill flies but it can be used in conjunction with insecticides to provide better results.

Feed Through System :
A feed through system also known as insect growth regulator consumed by the animals. The active ingredient, cyromazine, disrupts the pupal stage of the fly life cycle and damages the nervous system of the fly larvae. Recently, a new method has been developed to apply pyriproxyfen (PPF) as insect growth regulator. This prevents the development of fly larvae into adult flies.

Steps Towards Salubrious Poultry Gut

Steps Towards Salubrious Poultry GutGreat development and production in poultry and different animals rely on good digestion. The digestive system needs legitimate care to guarantee best performance.

The animal gut gives the ability to development, growth and performance. As in other animal species, the avian gut is an unpredictable and delicate system, with particular prerequisites for peak functioning. Ideal gut health contributes towards better health, welfare and performance. However, accomplishing this requires keeping up a delicate and exact gut balance. Great nourishment, bio-security, ecological and health administration can make a major contribution.

Poor gut health brings about a compromised Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and sub-optimal growth rates. Since feed represents the larger part of running expenses for poultry producers, and as global feed costs keep on rising, ‘taking full advantage of every feast’ in poultry production has turned out to be significantly more essential. This is impractical without ideal gut health.
Both diet and disease play a vital part in the development and maintenance of the micro-structure of the gut, which gives security against pathological substances, and additionally effective absorption of supplements. Inside the gut, lining is finger-like projections called villi that give an expansive surface area to boost the absorption of supplements from food. Harm to, or changes in this structure specifically can prompt to a decrease in the gut range accessible for nutrient retention.

In addition, birds with poor gut health have a tendency to have a lower health status and are, therefore, susceptible to diseases, for example, coccidiosis – a disease that causes genuine misfortunes in the poultry industry. Reduced utilisation of antibiotics in poultry and other animal production just developing, better health and immunity against disease has increased in significance for producers.

Aiming at safe, healthy and eco-sustainable poultry production, we at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduce one of our niche products with a brand name; “HERBOFLOXIN”- a blend of essential oils effective as natural growth promoter. It is a non-antibiotic growth promoter because when birds are subjected to traditionally used antibiotics for a longer time they tend to develop resistance for particular antibiotics and their effect is no longer seen in the control of bacterial infection in the birds. Also these antibiotics produce certain resistance in human who are consuming these poultry species. Where with our ‘non-antibiotic growth promoter- HERBOFLOXIN’ there are no chances of resistance development and also withdrawal period which is necessary with use of traditional antibiotic.

MOA :

Herbofloxin contains phyoconstituents of antibacterial nature which target the pathogenic gut bacteria and maintain slightly acidic pH. This slight decrease in the pH helps in colonization by gut commensals and resists pathogenic attachment to the gut wall. Thus improved gastrointestinal microclimate favors better digestibility and uptake of nutrients increasing weight of the birds.

Various other advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:

  • Complete gut acidification and antibacterial action.
  • Improved egg quality and size.
  • Uniformity in weight of eggs in a particular batch of flocks.
  • Ease in transportation of eggs of uniform weight, size and quality.
  • Improved FCR.

It is a complete natural growth promoter for poultry!

Basic Steps for Feed Management

Basic Steps for Feed Management - Vinayak IngredientsChicks require unique care as they move from the incubator to the rearing house. It is basic that they eat and drink enough immediately. Groups that neglect to make a brisk move to feed and water may experience the ill effects of higher early mortality rates. Fortifying feed and water utilization amid their initial few days will give chicks the best begin amid the agonizing period. Following are some key steps to keep in mind for better feed management.

  • Use starter feed during first seven days in a mash form.
  • Place the trays between the main feed and water lines and side to the brooders.
  • There ought to be around one plate for every 50 chicks.
  • After the initial 2-3 days, step by step draw feeder trays nearer to the computerized feeding system; then gradually evacuate them by and large over the next week.
  • Distribute feed all through the house in under three minutes from the time the feeder belt starts discharging feed to give the most feeder space per bird.
  • Adjust the feeder trough stature all through the brooding period so all chicks have simple access to the feed. To start with, lay the feeder on the litter so chicks don’t need to move into the feeder to eat. As the chicks develop, raise feeders so that the lip of the trough is level with the winged creatures’ back at all times.
  • Provide sufficient feeder space for guys and females, thinking about the rush’s age.
  • If chicks are set that day they bring forth, check the chick waste the morning after situation to guarantee they have discovered feed and water. On the off chance that chicks are put one day after they bring forth, yields ought to be checked 8 hours after arrangement to assess feed and water admission.
  • Ideally, at least 95 percent of the yields ought to feel delicate and malleable, demonstrating chicks have effectively found both feed and water. Hard yields demonstrate chicks have not discovered sufficient water. Swollen and widened wastes demonstrate chicks have found water however deficient feed. Check the accessibility and consistency of the feed.
  • Good management practices prescribe developing males and females independently for the initial six weeks.
  • Cultivators ought to help chicks move from the incubation facility to brooding environment, which incorporates ensuring the chicks start consuming and drinking right.

6 Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases

Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases - Vinayak IngredientsStay away: Restrict access to your farm and your chickens. Consider fencing off the zone where you keep your birds and make a hindrance region if conceivable. Permit only those individuals who deal with poultry to come into contact with them. In the event that guests have flying creatures of their own, don’t let them close to your fowls. Game birds and transient waterfowl ought not to have contact with your herd since they can convey germs and infections.

Keep it clean: Wear clean garments, scour your shoes with disinfectant, and wash your hands altogether before entering your poultry farm. Clean cages and change food and water day by day. Clean and sterilise hardware that interacts with your birds or their droppings, including pens and instruments. Expel compost before cleaning. Appropriately discard dead fowls.

Try not to Haul Disease Home: If you have been close other birds or poultry farm, for example, at a food store, clean and sanitise auto and truck tires, poultry cages, and hardware before going home. Have your birds been to a reasonable or display? Keep them isolated from whatever remains of your group for no less than 2 weeks after the occasion. New flying creatures ought to be kept separate from your group for no less than 30 days.

Try not to Borrow Disease From Your Neighbour: Do not share yard and greenhouse hardware, devices, or poultry supplies with your neighbours or other feathered creature proprietors. On the off chance that you do bring these things home, clean and sterilise them before they achieve your property.

Know the Warning Signs of Infectious Bird Diseases:

  • Lack of energy and poor appetite
  • Watery and green diarrhea
  • Sneezing, gasping for air, coughing, and nasal discharge
  • Swelling around the eyes, neck, and head
  • Drop in egg production or soft- or thin-shelled misshapen eggs
  • Tremors, drooping wings, circling, twisting of the head and neck, or lack of movement (END)
  • Purple discoloration of the wattles, combs, and legs (AI)
  • Sudden increase in bird deaths in your flock

Early detection is important to prevent the spread of disease.

Report Sick Birds (pertinent to poultry and possibly wild flying creatures): Don’t hold up. In the event that your flocks are sick or dying, call nearby veterinarian.

Microbiological Significance of Poultry Litter

Microbiological Significance of Poultry LitterChicken litter consists of a mixture of feces, wasted feeds, bedding materials, and feathers. Poultry manure contains critical measures of nitrogen on account of the nearness of abnormal amounts of protein and amino acids. Inferable from its high supplement content, chicken litter has been thought to be a standout amongst the most significant creature squanders as natural manure. Chicken litter is furthermore the wellspring of human pathogens, for instance, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can spoil the earth and are as frequently as could be expected under the circumstances associated with sustenance borne flare-ups. Composting of poultry waste preceding the application to horticultural area as natural manure is typically prescribed to control pathogens at last items.

Dynamic observation information on sustenance borne ailments from the United States uncover that among pathogens connected with nourishment borne flare-ups, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and L. monocytogenes are in charge of the majority of outbreaks. Salmonella spp. is the most broadly circulated pathogen in chicken litter with poultry and eggs remaining as the dominating reservoir. Amid 1998–2008, foodborne disease outbreaks brought on by Salmonella were related most usually with poultry meat items (30%) and eggs (24%).  Chicken eggs can be contaminated with Salmonella either horizontally or vertically. The contamination of egg shell can come about because of horizontal transmission, for example, fecal contact. And, vertical transmission of Salmonella has been seen in infected ovaries, oviducts, or contaminated eggs. Although just low quantities of Salmonella can defile eggs through the fecal course, these little population cannot be disregarded. Notably, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, or S. Heidelberg present in chicken defecation may infiltrate into the inside of eggs as well as multiply during storage. Salmonella is all the more regularly confined from chicken litter or fecal specimens when contrasted with different pathogens being researched and its pervasiveness level can go generally from 0 to 100%.  And the number of in chicken litter can go from 4 to 1.1 × 105 MPN/g litter.

Pathogens can be transmitted to individuals particularly through contact with poultry litter or through contaminated poultry items. Water may likewise get to be sullied either from poultry facilities or from over the top territory usage of poultry waste. Spillover can convey pathogens from the first site of animal manure-applied agricultural fields to water bodies serving as watering system, drinking, or recreational water sources. Clear knowledge of the transport of pathogens potentially present in poultry wastes and its runoff is essential for the establishment of effective control strategies to reduce the adverse effects on environment, food safety, and public health. A researcher compared two methods of poultry litter application, surface broadcast and subsurface banding, to investigate the influence of application methods on E. coli concentration in runoff from tall fescue pasture. E. coli concentration was found to be significantly higher in runoff from broadcast application than subsurface banding treatment. They inferred that subsurface banding of poultry litter into perennial grassland can incredibly lessen pathogen misfortunes in spillover when contrasted with surface-communicate application. In this manner, the customary surface-communicate use of chicken litter onto agricultural land may bring about large amounts of pathogens on the dirt surface that could be conceivably exchanged to overflow water.

Raw chicken litter has been generally connected to arable area as natural manure or soil correction to enhance the soil fertility and structure. To anticipate conceivable microbiological well being issues for the environment and food crops grown in the field, practical and compelling treatments ought to be created particularly for raw chicken litter preceding area application. Fertilising the soil, regularly utilised on farms, can inactivate substantial populations of human pathogens; nonetheless, studies have revealed that a few pathogens can survive the treating the soil procedure because of improper composting or cross-contamination. Accordingly, a little population of pathogenic cells may survive or regrow in the completed manure items under favourable conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological treatments can be different ways for pathogen inactivation however may not generally prompt the complete disposal of food borne pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based natural composts. Furthermore, some cells may become stress-adapted during build-up or composting, which cross-protect them against these subsequent treatments. Based on the hurdle concept, each kind of treatment can be used in combination with other disinfection strategies to potentiate microbial lethality. In order to effectively inactivate pathogens in chicken litter, it would be plausible to design a multi-step treatment with composting as the first step to kill large populations of pathogens, and then apply additional treatments to further eliminate the remaining cells. These systems with multiple treatments involved can be efficient in eliminating pathogens in chicken litter when proper control measures are in place and adopted.

Albeit chicken litter is viewed as a potential wellspring of food borne pathogens, this doesn’t propose that each part of the litter contains all the different sorts of pathogens that have been accounted for or that they will be available at maximally reported pervasiveness. Regardless, treatment systems ought to in any case be produced to inactivate the most safe and tenacious sorts of pathogens potentially to be experienced. Most of the studies on different techniques have attempted to reduce different bacterial pathogens or indigenous microorganisms in chicken litter or its composted products. Some estimates of pathogen reductions are uncertain and based only on limited lab studies with few pathogens, including indicator microbes (primarily fecal coliforms). However, it is still not clear whether the fate of such fecal indicator bacteria properly represents the responses of various human pathogens. In addition, not all fecal coliforms or tested pathogens emerge from animal feces, and they have some non-fecal ecological sources, which makes it harder to research the destiny of pathogens in animal wastes during different treatments. In this way, future studies ought to concentrate on assessing pathogen survival for various treatments utilising an extensive variety of conditions regularly experienced during build-up or composting.

Six Important Measures for Poultry Farming

Six Important Measures for Poultry FarmingOver past few decades the poultry industry has shown tremendous growth to meet the increasing demand in supply of meat and eggs. However, poultry farming is associated with a variety of toxic compounds such as ammonia, pesticides, pathogens and other airborne emissions. So, here are the six measures to keep in mind when planning for poultry farming.

1. Diet

Chickens are omnivores. Therefore they should typically be fed a prepared feed that is balanced for all nutrients. However, feed consumption may increase in the winter, and decrease in the heat of the summer. An important point of poultry diet is administering access to clean and fresh water. This is especially true in the summer as they cool themselves by panting.

2. Housing

A quality pen is important to poultry farming. Chickens are descended from jungle birds, which mean they like to be up high, so a place for them to roost is important. Sheds must provide protection from the weather and predators. Their main predators are rats, owls, hawks, and cats. An enclosed space for them to stay at night is essential to their protection. It should have a heat lamp for the winter months as well as ventilation for fresh air.

3. Daily care

Chickens need to be fed and water, and changed daily. The pen must be cleaned out weekly to maintain sanitation and control odour.

4. Bird Health

Healthy birds show peculiar signs such as they are alert and active with bright eyes, and they will be moving around. The poultry droppings show firm and grayish brown coloration. If the chickens aren’t normal, start taking correct measures to cure the disease.

5. Sanitation

An important element to bird health is sanitation. The shed and outdoor area must be cleaned weekly or as needed to control manure and odour build up. The waterers and feeders should be regularly disinfected and cleaned.

6. Poultry litter management

Poultry litter is made up of waste feed, digesta, intestinal flora and mineral by-products from metabolic processes and water. This causes problems with foul odour and humidity.

So how to manage the poultry litter?

  • First method is thoroughly cleaning the shed more than once a year. This will control the odour and fly populations.
  • Second method is to pasture the chickens. Moving of shelters can be a valuable tool while pasturing chickens and reducing cleaning time.
  • A third option is composting. Composting can be done right in the chickens’ bedding.

Poultry Litter Amendment

Poultry Litter AmendmentPoultry litter is commonly made of wood shavings, sawdust or rice hulls.  Microbes convert uric acid and organic nitrogen in the bird’s excreta to ammonium. This ammonium can not only bind to litter but also dissolve in water. This ammonium is generally converted to ammonia in high pH (i.e. alkaline) and high temperature conditions. Ammonia thus produced affects the respiratory system of the birds, can act as eye irritant and can also reduce resistance to infections. The cascading effects of ammonia are observed at high concentrations whereby it decreases the feed efficiency and growth of birds while increasing mortality in birds.

The net result of all these effects is Economic loss to the farms.

To prevent this, Essentiolitt Poultry is a an effective poultry amendment system and a unique product that consists of essential oils and mixture of clays which works on the following principle

  • pH control
  • Microbial control
  • Nitrogen and Phosphorus optimisation
  • Odor control
  • Litter Bio-security
  • Litter Disinfectant
  • Zoonosis control

Essentiolitt Poultry is an effective ammonia binder that ensures bio-security of the farm thereby helping in achieving the desired economical benefits.