Maintaining protein nutrition in chickens

Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens can be caused due to the increased
level of protein, 2-6 weeks post hatching. This is because of the over growth
of C. perfringens in the small digestive system, increasing from a typical
level of 10 4 CFU to 10 7 or 10 9 CFU per gram of digesta and causing harmful diseases.
With the increased dietary protein level, there will likewise be an increased activity of the trypsin in the small digestive system. This will, thusly, prompt to speedier arrival of coccidia from their oocytes which will lead so dynamic as to be less responsive to immunization.
In situations where such bacterial and protozoan are probably going to
prevail, it might then be advantageous, among different measures, to reduce the supply of protein and maintain it underneath the prescribed range. It is likewise important to consider the amino acid balance of the protein source to be utilized. Methionine and glycine, for instance, have been known to empower growth and establishment of C. perfringens and different pathogens in the gut.
Accordingly, the utilization of protein sources having over the top measures of these amino acids ought to be limited. Additionally, there are some protein sources, for example, cottonseed meal, raw soybean, and flax cakes, which contain varying measures of anti-nutritional factors, for example, trypsin inhibitors, gossypol, and glucosides. At the point when ingested by the bird, these components would then apply some damaging consequences for the small digestive tract, in this manner impeding
the safe mechanical assembly having nearby as well as systemic defensive capacities. Excessive utilization of such protein sources in the diet ought
to, therefore, be avoided as well.

Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro emulsions in Poultry are dispersions of oil and water with an emulsifier. They are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures. They are super solvents which improves stability and thermodynamic activity of formulation. Micro emulsions are beneficial to be used because it increases efficacy of the formulation allowing dose reduction. The average particle size of micro emulsion is 0.1 micrometer which helps in increasing the interfacial area thereby allowing active ingredient to get released easily. In poultry, micro emulsions are designed to include natural essential oils cell wall which in turn binds to mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxosis.

Vinayak Ingredients have introduced micro emulsion which is an alternative to antibiotics named as Herbofloxin. It is of natural origin prepared from essential oil of syzygium, citronella, thymus, eucalyptus. Herbofloxin has a particle size less than 0.1 micrometer which makes it easily soluble in water. It maintains poultry gut’s pH-6.5 to 6.7 which is slightly acidic. As it is a micro emulsion it has better dispersion in water, stable at 45 degree Celsius temperature and has a longer shelf life. All these factors makes it safe to be consumed by poultry without having any side effects which are otherwise usually caused by using antibiotics. Herbofloxin is natural replacer for antibiotic growth promoters.

Mechanism of action: Herbofloxin being a micro emulsion when mixed with water forms nano emulsion due to which particle size decreases further making it easier to penetrate the bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. Disruption of cell wall leads to killing of bad bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Salmonella. Thus it acts like a bacteriostatic. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory by improving mucin coverage which is a first line of defence in poultry.

Herbofloxin as a micro emulsion replaces antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, amino glycosides and selectively modulates poultry gut to promote the beneficial microflora.

NEONATAL POULTRY NUTRITION

Over the last five decades, improvements in nutrition and genetic selection have reduced the time required to produce a 2 Kg broiler within 1.7 FCR. The neonatal period is defined as the first seven days of the production cycle after hatch. It is a crucial time when the chick requires special management and nutrition. Efforts to control metabolic disorders such as ascites and leg problems have led to recommending early feed restriction during the first two weeks post-hatch. Thus, it is essential to know the effect of poultry management practices on subsequent chick development. A paper presented in the Ohio university explains the importance of the relationship of neonatal nutrition to muscle development. Muscle growth and development can be divided into two distinct periods: hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia is an embryonic period characterized by proliferation of muscle fiber number whereas hypertrophy is a post-hatch muscle growth that results in the enlargement of existing muscle fibers. Nutritional deprivation has a significant effect on myoblast cells. The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of an immediate post-hatch feed restriction on breast muscle formation. The increased number of nuclei in muscle fibers correlates with increased synthesis of protein and muscle fiber size enlargement. Myoblast cells are extremely responsive to the mitogenic effects of their environment, including nutrition. A 42-day length of a study conducted with feed restriction on the neonatal chickens showed a significant difference morphologically in the development and structure of the breast muscle between the feed restricted and unrestricted diet treatments. It also increased the deposition of fat in the breast muscle of the birds with the 20% feed restriction.
The Bottom Line Nutrient deprivation in the first few days after hatch may interfere with normal muscle protein development in broiler chicks. However, if you believe that flavor and juiciness follow the fat, there may
be some benefit from an early feed.

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilers?

A comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY™ as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation), Treatment1 (containing added DL-methionine) and Treatment2 (containing KiFAY™ and without DL-methionine
supplementation). The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio) were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks.

Analysis of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) were performed at the end of the study. The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY™ performed significantly (p<0.001) better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed in-take and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY™ treated birds. The study shows an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001) in KiFAY™ than other treatments.

Serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the treatment2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001). The KiFAY™ supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.

IGF1 IN BROILERS

Insulin like Growth Factor-1 (also called IGF-1 or somatomedin C), is a highly conserved molecule similar to the molecular structure of insulin. It is made up of 70 amino acids encoded by the IGF1 gene.

IGF-1 has many effects on the body.

It plays a key role in the control of skeletal characteristics, metabolism, and growth of adipose tissue and deposition of fat in chickens. IGF1 promotes cell division and cell growth in the body. It also plays a role in cellular repair in the brain, heart and muscles of the animal. The perturbation of IGF1 can cause many consequences to the animal. IGF-1 is a major mediator of effects of growth hormone (GH) produced in the pituitary gland, then released into the blood stream, later triggers the liver to produce IGF-1.

Few studies have shown no direct correlation between GH levels and the growth rate in chickens; hence this has led to study IGFs as mediators of the functions of GH. The action of mechanism is initiated by binding of IGF1 to its receptor called IGF1 receptor which is present on many cell types in many tissues. This mediates intracellular many cellular signal transductions at the molecular level. The mechanisms of involvement of these proteins in
insulin/IGF signaling pathways are largely speculative and require further study. The IGF1 produced in the muscle offers main benefits to the gain of the muscle. They trigger different protein activities involved in the muscle protein synthesis.

There are multiple factors associated with the production of IGF1, such as low levels of glucose or deficiency of protein can trigger a significant decline of the IGF1, vice versa. full Endocrinology in birds has always been an unfamiliar subject to the researchers, even though endocrinopathy in birds have high occurrence. Hormones such as the growth hormone, IGF, thyroid hormones and insulin, play important and diverse roles in animal growth.

Very few information is available that explains the nutrient-IGF relationship in poultry industry. However, IGF1 have been sensitive to the alteration in the nutrition in domestic fowl. Studies performed by two separate groups shows food deprivation for 5 day depresses circulating IGF1 concentration and upon re-feeding, concentration return to near initial concentration.

Other studies in contrast reported that a complete return to normal IGF1 was observed following depriving from feeding suggesting that the extent of nutrient deprivation determines the rate at which IGF1 synthesis and
secretion return to normal following periods of nutrient modification. The study led by Del vesco and its colleagues in 2013, has evaluated the effects of different dietary methionine levels on IGF1 and GH gene expression in liver and muscle tissues. The IGF1 and GH gene expression in muscle tissues was not affected by methionine supplementation. However, IGF1 gene expression in the liver was higher in broilers fed methionine diet. They further demonstrated the effect of heat stress and supplementation of methionine on the GH and IGF1gene expression in the liver and found that methionine supplementation increased IGF1 and GH expression.

They observed that the highest GHR expression occurred at normal temperature and not at heat stress in supplementation of methionine in the diet. This suggests that the protein degradation is induced by the heat stress but supplementation of methionine triggers protein deposition because it increases the expression of gene related protein synthesis and reduces the expression of genes related to protein catabolism.
Jaromir Kadlec along with other workers has found IGF1 as a potential candidate gene responsible for various metabolic traits in chickens. They have identified single variable gene known as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in total 132 birds using molecular techniques
and have correlated the genotype frequencies with growth and fat deposition in chickens.

The results depict identical IGF1 amino acid sequences among chickens, rats and human peptides. In spite of the wealth of knowledge that has accumulated concerning IGF1 in past few decades, still many details of IGF1 in broilers remain to be clarified about the role of different pathways.