Know about Enterococcus infection in Broilers

Enterococcus infection in BroilersEnterococcus cecorum is a Gram-positive bacterium which is a normal intestinal flora in mammals and birds. To date, only clinical cases of infection have been shown in broilers. The age at which the first clinical symptoms become noticeable varies widely. For example, one strain of broiler shows clinical symptoms at very young age (only 7 to 14 days old), while other strain detect no symptoms until by day 48.

Clinical symptoms

Affected birds can display a variety of symptoms, ranging from swollen, inflamed hocks to partial or even complete paralysis of the legs. Mostly the birds are observed sitting with their back arched stretching their legs outward. Therefore, these ultimately die due to lack of food and water. Mortality rate due to these leg problems is approximately 5 to 7 %.

Another typical feature of this enterococcus disease is that it affects male broiler to a much greater extent than hens. This is probably due to faster growth in them, which makes them more susceptible to stress on their bone structure and hence to infection in the bone tissue.

The bacteria predispose site because the 6th thoracic vertebra freely than 5th and 7th vertebrae. This makes 6th thoracic vertebra more susceptible to mechanical stress during growth. The bacteria gain entry for growth due to stress that causes microfratures in these locations.

Prevention and treatment

  • Thorough cleaning and disinfection of thewater pipes plus drinking water testing.
  • It is possible to treat this disease with antibiotics.

However due to problems associated with antibiotic resistance,it is important to start the control of these harmful bacteria at early stages of the poultry production cycle by maintaining balance of Good bacteria over bad bacteria in the poultry gut.  To help the industry in combating this problem we at Vinayak Ingredients(India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche product with a brand name; HERBOFLOXIN”- a blend of essential oils effective as natural non-antibiotic growth promoter. It is a non-antibiotic growth promoter because when birds are subjected to traditionally used antibiotics for a longer time they tend to develop resistance for particular antibiotics and their effect is no longer seen in the control of bacterial infection in the birds. Also these antibiotics produce certain resistance in human who are consuming these poultry species. Where with our ‘non-antibiotic growth promoter- HERBOFLOXIN’ there are no chances of resistance development and also withdrawal period which is necessary with use of traditional antibiotic.

MOA

Herbofloxin contains phyoconstituents of antibacterial nature which target the pathogenic gut bacteria and maintain slightly acidic pH. This slight decrease in the pH helps in colonization by gut commensals and resists pathogenic attachment to the gut wall. Thus improved gastrointestinal microclimate favors better digestibility and uptake of nutrients increasing weight of the poultry birds.

Various other advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows;

  • Complete gut acidification and antibacterial action.
  • Improved egg quality and size.
  • Uniformity in weight of eggs in a particular batch of flogs
  • Ease in transportation of eggs of uniform weight, size and quality.
  • Improved FCR

It is a complete growth promoter for poultry!

How to Control Flies in Poultry Farm (5 Techniques)

How to Control Flies in Poultry Farm - Vinayak IngredientsIt is important to keep control over fly population which may irritate the farm animals and affect their performances. So here are few enlisted techniques which can be utilized to control or prevent flies on poultry farms

Fly Paper :
This is the most conventional technique towards other fly control options. Fly paper do work effectively but it has disadvantage as the fly paper containing hundreds of victim flies stuck can be unsightly and unattractive. Therefore, it has to be regularly removed and replaced with new fly papers which can also be laborious task.

Fly Traps :
The slight modified version of fly paper is the fly trap that is plastic containers with bait inside to lure flies. This is also equally effective, full traps can be ugly and smelly as well.

Misters :
A modern method to keep flies at bay is to install portable fly-spray throughout the farms. The fly spray has an insecticide which can be sprayed every 15 minutes. They are relatively inexpensive and have been tested and proven safe for use near livestock and farm pets.

Predators :
A very natural and eco friendly means to eliminate the types of flies is to use fly predators. Fly predators also known as parasitoids are very tiny and resemble ants with wings. Their sole purpose is to stop the reproductive cycle of flies. Although fly predators do not kill flies but it can be used in conjunction with insecticides to provide better results.

Feed Through System :
A feed through system also known as insect growth regulator consumed by the animals. The active ingredient, cyromazine, disrupts the pupal stage of the fly life cycle and damages the nervous system of the fly larvae. Recently, a new method has been developed to apply pyriproxyfen (PPF) as insect growth regulator. This prevents the development of fly larvae into adult flies.

Steps Towards Salubrious Poultry Gut

Steps Towards Salubrious Poultry GutGreat development and production in poultry and different animals rely on good digestion. The digestive system needs legitimate care to guarantee best performance.

The animal gut gives the ability to development, growth and performance. As in other animal species, the avian gut is an unpredictable and delicate system, with particular prerequisites for peak functioning. Ideal gut health contributes towards better health, welfare and performance. However, accomplishing this requires keeping up a delicate and exact gut balance. Great nourishment, bio-security, ecological and health administration can make a major contribution.

Poor gut health brings about a compromised Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and sub-optimal growth rates. Since feed represents the larger part of running expenses for poultry producers, and as global feed costs keep on rising, ‘taking full advantage of every feast’ in poultry production has turned out to be significantly more essential. This is impractical without ideal gut health.
Both diet and disease play a vital part in the development and maintenance of the micro-structure of the gut, which gives security against pathological substances, and additionally effective absorption of supplements. Inside the gut, lining is finger-like projections called villi that give an expansive surface area to boost the absorption of supplements from food. Harm to, or changes in this structure specifically can prompt to a decrease in the gut range accessible for nutrient retention.

In addition, birds with poor gut health have a tendency to have a lower health status and are, therefore, susceptible to diseases, for example, coccidiosis – a disease that causes genuine misfortunes in the poultry industry. Reduced utilisation of antibiotics in poultry and other animal production just developing, better health and immunity against disease has increased in significance for producers.

Aiming at safe, healthy and eco-sustainable poultry production, we at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduce one of our niche products with a brand name; “HERBOFLOXIN”- a blend of essential oils effective as natural growth promoter. It is a non-antibiotic growth promoter because when birds are subjected to traditionally used antibiotics for a longer time they tend to develop resistance for particular antibiotics and their effect is no longer seen in the control of bacterial infection in the birds. Also these antibiotics produce certain resistance in human who are consuming these poultry species. Where with our ‘non-antibiotic growth promoter- HERBOFLOXIN’ there are no chances of resistance development and also withdrawal period which is necessary with use of traditional antibiotic.

MOA :

Herbofloxin contains phyoconstituents of antibacterial nature which target the pathogenic gut bacteria and maintain slightly acidic pH. This slight decrease in the pH helps in colonization by gut commensals and resists pathogenic attachment to the gut wall. Thus improved gastrointestinal microclimate favors better digestibility and uptake of nutrients increasing weight of the birds.

Various other advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:

  • Complete gut acidification and antibacterial action.
  • Improved egg quality and size.
  • Uniformity in weight of eggs in a particular batch of flocks.
  • Ease in transportation of eggs of uniform weight, size and quality.
  • Improved FCR.

It is a complete natural growth promoter for poultry!

The Significance of Ventilation in Poultry Management

The Significance of Ventilation in Poultry ManagementVentilation is one of the most widely recognised difficulties confronting broiler growers in both routine and closed-environment lodging. Ventilation systems are intended to naturally deal with this environment for poultry, particularly amid the brooding period. Whether you utilise a passage or cross-ventilation system or a blend of both, ventilation is important to make the ideal environment that birds need to develop and create during every phase of life.

A key prerequisite of any base ventilation system is to take care of the oxygen demand of the cutting edge poultry bird and to guarantee great conveyance of outside air all through the poultry house. Oxygen is required for both the generation of warm body and digestion system of supplements fundamental for development. In the first week, the carbon dioxide is principally delivered by the ignition of LPG and from the chicks themselves. A chick’s respiratory system is at close full limit at comfort temperature. As temperature drops in the environment, the chick must devour extensively more elevated amounts of oxygen to stay agreeable. Ventilation systems evacuate carbon dioxide and supply chicks with the oxygen they have to create healthy cardiovascular system and to anticipate issues, for example, ascites, which can occur if demand for oxygen increases by just five percent.

Today’s present day broiler consumes almost twice as much water at 28 days than they did two-and-a- half decades ago. Around 75 percent of the water consumed daily is discharged as water vapour from the respiratory system or precipitated alongside the droppings as dampness in the poultry litter. Chicks are not thermo-competent until 14 days of age and along these lines depend on supplementary warmth to keep them warm. During the initial seven days, chicks will more than fourfold their body weight. This is the main chance to accomplish such development in a single week. Keeping chicks warm and guaranteeing sufficient supplementary food, access to crisp water and great least ventilation are essential variables for deciding a herd’s general execution.

The Key Decision of Choosing Ventilation in Poultry Farm

Ventilation in Poultry Farm - Vinayak IngredientsIn hot summer climate shed infrastructure becomes important in guaranteeing ideal airflow for the cooling and solace of the birds. However when outlining an advanced broiler house the needs are very frequently determined by the requirement for quick returns. The poultry farmer empowers feed utilisation from the minute the chicks land on the farm, with the most critical initial seven days. The other most difficult period, particularly in summer, is following 25 days when birds are completely feathered and hot conditions will challenge feed consumption.

The greatest challenge for houses longer than 120 meters is keeping up a satisfactory temperature get from the front to the back of the house. The level of birds comfort at last drives day by day encourage utilisation and even temperature dissemination will guarantee uniform food admission and uniform processing weights.

The amount that the air in a house warms up depends fundamentally on three components:

  1. Metabolic heat produced by the ovens;
  2. How rapidly the air in the house is exchanged; and
  3. Thermal properties of the house.

The transition ventilation framework assumes a basic part in temperature administration during brooding at day 21. It guarantees productive air exchange and temperature administration without making excessive air movement at chick level. Until birds develop completely, they are exceptionally sensitive to air movement, which impacts feed consumption. The faster the air exchange rate, the cooler a house will be. However, a decent air exchange capacity alone won’t ensure bird comfort. Air is required to expel sensible heat created by the broilers. Most houses are outfitted with an evaporation cooling framework, intended to keep the approaching air temperature below 29°C. Dropping temperature with an evaporating cooling system expands humidity in the house, diminishing the birds’ ability to discharge heat. By far the most critical contributor to birds comfort is air speed.

Future key design choices will rotate around accomplishing the real potential at most reduced working expenses. Later on power expenses will be the best patron to general operational expenses. One’s decision of passage fan will by far be the most vital choice.

6 Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases

Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases - Vinayak IngredientsStay away: Restrict access to your farm and your chickens. Consider fencing off the zone where you keep your birds and make a hindrance region if conceivable. Permit only those individuals who deal with poultry to come into contact with them. In the event that guests have flying creatures of their own, don’t let them close to your fowls. Game birds and transient waterfowl ought not to have contact with your herd since they can convey germs and infections.

Keep it clean: Wear clean garments, scour your shoes with disinfectant, and wash your hands altogether before entering your poultry farm. Clean cages and change food and water day by day. Clean and sterilise hardware that interacts with your birds or their droppings, including pens and instruments. Expel compost before cleaning. Appropriately discard dead fowls.

Try not to Haul Disease Home: If you have been close other birds or poultry farm, for example, at a food store, clean and sanitise auto and truck tires, poultry cages, and hardware before going home. Have your birds been to a reasonable or display? Keep them isolated from whatever remains of your group for no less than 2 weeks after the occasion. New flying creatures ought to be kept separate from your group for no less than 30 days.

Try not to Borrow Disease From Your Neighbour: Do not share yard and greenhouse hardware, devices, or poultry supplies with your neighbours or other feathered creature proprietors. On the off chance that you do bring these things home, clean and sterilise them before they achieve your property.

Know the Warning Signs of Infectious Bird Diseases:

  • Lack of energy and poor appetite
  • Watery and green diarrhea
  • Sneezing, gasping for air, coughing, and nasal discharge
  • Swelling around the eyes, neck, and head
  • Drop in egg production or soft- or thin-shelled misshapen eggs
  • Tremors, drooping wings, circling, twisting of the head and neck, or lack of movement (END)
  • Purple discoloration of the wattles, combs, and legs (AI)
  • Sudden increase in bird deaths in your flock

Early detection is important to prevent the spread of disease.

Report Sick Birds (pertinent to poultry and possibly wild flying creatures): Don’t hold up. In the event that your flocks are sick or dying, call nearby veterinarian.

5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry Production

5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry Production - Vinayak IngredientsBio-security practices and farm hygiene are the most important measures in order to prevent the risk of disease in poultry production. So here are the quick 5 main ways that farmer should keep in mind while working on a poultry farm.

  1. It is an obvious fact that the healthy, unstressed birds to have active metabolism and effective immunity against disease. Thus, feeding birds with nutritionally balanced diet maintain a comfortable living environment and minimising fear and anxiety in the birds will help the birds to survive.
  2. Another way for eliminating the disease is the vaccination aid in preventing pathogens especially viruses by immunising the bird in such a way that it enhances the immune response when the bird is subsequently exposed to it.
  3. Poultry sanitation is the crucial step which the flock owner might normally overlook. Disinfectants are normally applied only after the equipment and the whole farm have been thoroughly cleaned. It is suggested to clean manure/used litter from the sheds and removed from the site on the same day. For the litter to be disposed of on site, the land disposal areas and sensitive areas such as farm must be separated to avoid cross contamination. Disinfectants are generally applied by sprays, aerosols and fumigation. A pest control program must be introduced to get rid of rodents and other pests.
  4. Litter amendment system is one such bio-security system that can act as an ammonia binder which helps in improving the exposure of ammonia to the birds and reduces its release into the environment. Litter amendment systems also having disinfectant properties may be used as bio-security enhancers in the poultry house. This also decreases the energy intake by lowering the ventilation needed during winter season.
  5. The farmer/workers should wear apron and boots on the farm to avoid cross contamination. Hands must wash thoroughly with soap and clean water. The number of visitors must be reduced to the farm house or get into the close contact with birds.

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultry?

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultryRespiratory physiology of poultry is unique. Unlike human respiratory anatomy the avian lungs do not expand or contract on breathing. The direction of the flow of gases is unidirectional in the lungs making it more efficient in gas exchange.  The air sacs associated with the poultry respiration form a very important component for air storage during inhalation or exhalation.  The air sacs also regulate body temperature by diverting air flow to pneumatic bones for effective heat exchange.

All etiologies for respiratory disease in poultry have an aerosol mediated entry point. The contact of these agents with the capillary system associated with the lungs is brief as they are diverted to the air sac for temporary storage. Air sacculitis forms a major finding for respiratory related mortalities on post mortem examinations. Keeping these facts in mind we can list factors affecting respiratory disease as;

Environmental stress affecting breathing of the birds

a) Heat/cold stress

b) Handling stress

Immunisation failures

a) Vaccine component failure

b) Immunodeficiency

Inflammatory agents affecting respiratory system

a) Microbial etiology in bio-aerosols

b) Irritant gases and particulates

Nutritional deficiencies

a) Hypovitaminosis ( A & B 12)

b) Amino acid deficiencies

Step Towards “Ammonia- Free” Environment For Poultry

Step Towards “Ammonia- Free” Environment For PoultryNitrogen is highly found in animal excreta and can exist in various forms. One such form is “Ammonia”. Primarily ammonia is a result of breakdown of urea present in urine of birds by the enzymes; urease and uricase. It is a potential source to create bad odour and negatively impact air and water quality and animal as well as human health. Presence of ammonia above 25ppm in the poultry house can damage the respiratory system of the birds and also there is a reduction in immune system; leading to declining flock health and performance. In addition to the effects on bird’s health, ammonia has significant hazardous effect on the caretakers and to the environmental ecology.

High levels of ammonia emission inside the poultry house have also become a cause of concern for the atmosphere outside the poultry house. Therefore there is a great need to develop strategies to reduce ammonia formation, volatilization, or downwind transmission of ammonia after it is volatilised from the poultry manure to minimise the harmful effects of ammonia on animal and human health as well as the environment.

Keeping this in mind and with a view to develop ‘ammonia- free ‘and organic environment for all, Vinayak Ingredients have launched a product with a brand name “KiFAY” which is a blend of various herbal extracts in a diatomaceous carrier which acts as a DL-Methionine replacer and a nutritional feed additive and goes directly into the feed and acts as an amino acid optimiser and improves the apparent ileal digestibility of the feed and hence improves the protein turnover this also reduces the amount of amino acid degradation by the liver and excretion by kidney which form the major part of nitrogen compounds excreted by poultry. In turn these compounds are also responsible for ammonia and smell in the poultry house, apart from posing stressors for liver and kidney.

Vinayak Ingredients have also launched a Bio-security product which combats the remaining ammonia emission in the droppings of the birds which acts as a litter amendment system under the brand name of “ESSENTIOLITT-POULTRY”. Essentiolitt poultry is an ammonia binder and has bactericidal action on urease and uricase enzymes and inhibit the ammonia formation by increasing 45% nitrogen retention and ammonia emission.

Respiratory Disease In Poultry

Respiratory Disease In Poultry - Vinayak IngredientsImagine a flock of 1000 chickens or may be a few backyard chickens. In both the case you can encounter major challenge in controlling respiratory diseases, when trying to maintain a healthy flock. So what are the most common signs you see in your flock. These could be- sneezing, discharge around the nostrils and eyes, open mouthed breathing, ruffled feathers, head shaking and wheezy breathing sounds.

The most common causes are described in brief below:

Newcastle Disease (ND), also known as pneumoencephilitis, is highly contagious and that attacks the internal organs (viscerotropic). All birds of wide age groups are susceptible to ND. Humans and other mammals are also affected by ND. ND occurs in three forms, lentogenic (mildly pathogenic), mesogenic (moderately pathogenic) and velogenic (highly pathogenic). It is characterized by a sudden onset of clinical signs including hoarse chirps (in chicks), watery discharge from nostrils, labored breathing (gasping), facial swelling, and paralysis, trembling and twisting of the neck. In laying birds, show symptoms such as decreased feed and water intake and a substantial drop in egg production. Newcastle virus can be transmitted by the air borne route or wild birds, contaminated footwear, workers, visitors, and dirty equipment. Newcastle virus is also transmitted in the egg and the infected embryos die before hatching.

In live birds, the virus is shed in body fluids, secretion, excreta and breath. There is no specific treatment for ND. Antibiotics can be given for 3-5 days to prevent two bacterial infections. However, prevention programs should include good sanitation, vaccination and implementation of a comprehensive biosecurity programme.

Infectious Bronchitis, also known as bronchitis or cold. It is found only in chickens. Similar disease occurs in quail caused by a different virus. The severity of infection is influenced by the age and immune status of the flock, by environmental conditions and by the presence of other diseases. Breathing noises are evident with a watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils. Feed and water consumption declines. Egg production drops dramatically. The IBV infects many tissues of the body, including the reproductive tract. It is known to spread by air, infected dead birds, infected houses and rodent. No specific treatment is available. But it can be prevented by enforcing a bio-security program. Vaccinations are also available.

Infectious coryza mostly affects chickens, pheasants and guinea fowl. It shows swelling around the face, foul smelling, thick, sticky discharge from the nostrils and eyes, labored breathing and rates. The birds may have diarrhea and growing birds may become stunted. Mortality is usually low. Transmission is primarily by direct bird-to-bird contact. This can be from infected birds brought into the flock as well as from birds which recover from the disease. Sulfadimethoxine is the preferred treatment antibiotic. Others such as erythromycin, sulfamethazine, and tetracycline can be used as alternative can be used as alternative treatment. Good management and sanitation are the best ways to avoid infectious coryza.

Avian influenza can occur in most, if not all, species of birds. AI is categorized as mild form which produces loss of appetite, listlessness, diarrhea, respiratory distress, dramatic drops in egg production and low mortality. The highly pathogenic form produces blue comb, facial swelling, wattles and dehydration with respiratory distress. Egg production and hatch ability decreases. There can be an increase in production of soft-shelled and shell-less eggs. AI virus can remain viable for long period of time at moderate temperatures. It can spread through shoes, clothing, crates and other equipment. Insects and rodents may mechanically carry the virus from infected to susceptible poultry. Broad spectrum antibiotics may reduce losses from secondary infections with proper nutrition, good husbandry. A vaccination program used in conjunction with a strict quarantine has been used to control mild form of the disease. With the more lethal form, strict quarantine and rapid destruction of all infected flocks remains the only effective method of stopping an avian influenza outbreak.

Infectious Bursal disease, also known as infectious bursitis mostly affects chickens. In affected chickens greater than three weeks of age, there is usually a rapid onset of the disease with a significant drop in feed and water consumption, watery droppings leading to soiling of feathers around the vent, and vent pecking. The virus is spread easily by infected bird contact, as well as by contact with contaminated people and equipment. The virus is also shed in the bird droppings and can be spread by air through dust particles. Dead birds are good source of the virus which should be incinerated. Antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitro-furans have little or no effect. Vitamin-electrolyte therapy is seldom effective. High levels of tetracycline are contaminated because they tie up calcium, thereby producing rickets. A vaccine is commercially available.

Fowl pox, also known as bird pox, sore head, avian diphtheria, chicken pox (not to be confused with chicken pox in humans). It affects mostly poultry, turkey, quail, duck; chickens- of all ages are susceptible. The clinical signs occur in two forms. The dry form characterised by raised wart-like lesions on un-feathered areas (head, legs, vent, etc). The lesions heal in about two weeks. In laying hens, infection result in a transient decline in egg production. The wet form shows presence of canker-like lesions in the mouth, trachea, pharynx, and larynx. It may cause respiratory distress by obstructing the upper air passages. Mosquitoes are the primary reservoir and spreaders of fowl pox on poultry ranges. Mosquitoes are infected by feeding on birds with fowl pox in their blood stream. Fowl pox can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected to susceptible birds. Currently, no treatment is available; however, fowl pox outbreaks can be controlled by killing mosquitoes. If fowl pox is endemic in the area, vaccination is recommended.

All the above diseases depict the significance of bio-security that is required in the farm. To help maintain a healthy poultry flock, farmers should buy birds from a reliable source, maintain a clean pen, feed an appropriate diet and protect the birds from disease and predators through proper biosecurity. Small flock owners should seek guidance from veterinary doctors if they have queries about the healthy and management of their flocks. In addition to improving animal welfare, economy, occupational health and consumer protection, future-oriented sustainable farm animal production should enhance standards aimed at preventing or reducing the respiratory diseases through air.