An overview of Feeding Chickens for increasing Performance and Productivity

Feeding Chickens for increasing Performance and ProductivityAn essential part of raising chickens is nourishing – feeding makes up the significant cost of production and great nutrition is reflected in the bird’s performance and its productivity.

Feeding Options

The most advantageous method for feeding chickens is with a well balanced pelleted ration, regardless of whether the birds are restricted inside or permitted to range outside. Most diets contain corn for vitality, soybean meal for protein, and vitamin and other mineral supplements. Commercial rations regularly contain antibiotics to promote and enhance the development, coccidiostats for battling coccidiosis, and mold inhibitors. In any case, it is possible to acquire unmedicated encourage check nourish marks to check whether they contain feed additives. In the industry, feed is pelleted so the bird can eat more at one time. Chickens are nibblers and do visit to the nourish trough for little dinners, which requires vitality. Pelleting lessens the measure of vitality required for a feathered creature to bolster.  Distinctive rations are frequently utilized, depending upon the production stage of the bird. Starter rations are high in protein- an expensive feed ingredient. However, grower and finisher rations can be lower in protein since older birds require less. Access to clean water is important. Levels of total dissolved solids over 3000 ppm in the water can meddle with poultry well being and production.

Home-Mixed Rations

Poultry feed ingredients incorporate energy concentrates, for example, oats, corn, grain, wheat, sorghum, and milling by-products. Protein concentrates incorporate soybean meal and other oilseed meals, cottonseed meals, animal protein sources, grain legumes, for example, dry beans, peas, and alfalfa. Grains are generally ground to enhance absorbability. Since protein is one of the most expensive feed ingredients, the industry utilizes focused on rations and decrease the measure of protein in the eating routine as the chickens develop; notwithstanding, it may not be cost-effective to have diverse eating diets for starters, growers, and finishers. The vitamin pre – mix is normally included, however, might be diminished by utilizing horse feed. Different plants also give vitamins in their leaves, hulls, and wheat. Fish oil can give vitamins A and D. The yeast gives a ration of the B vitamins. UV light is a decent source of vitamin D for going chickens. Trace mineral is normally added to poultry diets, yet different sources can give minerals. Meat and bone meal is a fantastic source of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, and additionally being a decent protein source. Probiotics are once in a while given to the chicks during placement and before transportation.

Certified Organic Diets

Home-mixed diets are especially valuable to certified natural poultry producers. In spite of the fact that pre-mixed natural poultry rations are accessible for procurement, they can be costly and maybe ought to be dispatched from long distances.

Feed Additives in the Diet

Feed additives are added to improve the efficiency of broiler growth, laying capacity of layers, prevent diseases and to promote health. The feed additives used in poultry diet include amino acids, vitamins, antimicrobials, pH control agent, and enzymes. Protein and amino acids form an important building block in poultry nutrition. The quality of protein is graded by its illegal amino acid digestibility, the higher the digestibility the better is the ingredient as a protein source. Deficiency of essential amino acids results in retarded growth or reduced egg size or reduced egg production.

To help the industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of the birds, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche products with a brand name; “KiFAY”- an Amino Acid Optimiser.  It is an all in one product for optimizing your poultry feed and production.

MOA OF KiFAY

It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved  ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.

The reason why we should use KiFAY:-

  • In broilers it increases the weight by improving feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein utilization.
  • In layers KiFAY enhances the quality and other parameters of egg like;
  • Egg shell weight by 9-10%, Egg shell thickness by 15%, Egg weight 8%, Egg length by 15-16%, Egg width by 32-33%
  • It also reduces faecal nitrogen deposition by improving protein turnover.
  • It acts as a hepatoprotectant by inhibiting free radicals causing damage to the liver cells.
  • It optimizes immunomodulation by enhancing Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)

Thus KiFAY acts as a performance enhancer in poultry.

Maintaining protein nutrition in chickens

Maintaining protein nutrition in chickens - Vinayak IngredientsNecrotic enteritis in broiler chickens can be caused due to the increased level of protein, 2-6 weeks post hatching. This is because of the overgrowth of 
C. Perfringens in the small digestive system, increasing from a typical level of 104 CFU to 107 Or 109 CFU per gram of digestion and causing harmful diseases.

With the increased dietary protein level, there will likewise be an increased activity of the trypsin in the small digestive system. This will, thusly, prompt to the speedy arrival of coccidia from their oocyte which will lead so dynamic as to be less responsive to immunization.

In situations where such bacterial and protozoan are probably going to prevail, it might then be advantageous, among different measures, to reduce the supply of protein and maintain it underneath the prescribed range. It is likewise important to consider the amino acid balance of the protein source to be utilized. Methionine and glycine, for instance, have been known to empower growth and establishment of C. Perfringens and different pathogens in the gut. Accordingly, the utilization of protein sources having over the top measures of these amino acids ought to be limited.

Additionally, there are some protein sources, for example, cottonseed meal, raw soybean, and flax cakes, which contain varying measures of anti-nutritional factors, for example, trypsin inhibitors, gossypol, and glucosides. At the point when ingested by the bird, these components would then apply some damaging consequences for the small digestive tract, in this manner impeding the safe mechanical assembly having nearby as well as systemic defensive capacities. Excessive utilization of such protein sources in the diet ought to, therefore, be avoided as well.

Monitoring Chicken Feed for Enhanced Productivity and Performance

Monitoring Chicken Feed for Enhanced Productivity and PerformanceAn essential part of raising chickens is nourishing – feeding makes up the significant cost of production and great nutrition is reflected in the bird’s performance and its productivity.

Feeding Options
The most advantageous method for feeding chickens is with a well balanced pelleted ration, regardless of whether the birds are restricted inside or permitted to range outside. Most diets contain corn for vitality, soybean meal for protein, and vitamin and other mineral supplements. Commercial rations regularly contain antibiotics to promote and enhance the development, coccidiostats for battling coccidiosis, and mold inhibitors. In any case, it is possible to acquire unmedicated encourage check nourish marks to check whether they contain feed additives. In the industry, feed is pelleted so the bird can eat more at one time. Chickens are nibblers and do visit to the nourish trough for little dinners, which requires vitality. Pelleting lessens the measure of vitality required for a feathered creature to bolster. Distinctive rations are frequently utilized, depending upon the production stage of the bird. Starter rations are high in protein- an expensive feed ingredient. However, grower and finisher rations can be lower in protein since older birds require less. Access to clean water is important. Levels of total dissolved solids over 3000 ppm in the water can meddle with poultry wellbeing and production.

Home-Mixed Rations
Poultry feed ingredients incorporate energy concentrates, for example, oats, corn, grain, wheat, sorghum, and milling by-products. Protein concentrates incorporate soybean meal and other oilseed meals, cottonseed meals, animal protein sources, grain legumes, for example, dry beans, peas, and alfalfa. Grains are generally ground to enhance absorbability. Since protein is one of the most expensive feed ingredients, the industry utilizes focused on rations and decrease the measure of protein in the eating routine as the chickens develop; notwithstanding, it may not be cost-effective to have diverse eating diets for starters, growers, and finishers. The Vitamin pre-mix is normally included, however, might be diminished by utilizing horse feed. Different plants also give vitamins in their leaves, hulls, and wheats. Fish oil can give vitamins A and D. The yeast gives a ration of the B vitamins. UV light is a decent source of vitamin D for going chickens. Trace mineral is normally added to poultry diets, yet different sources can give minerals. Meat and bone meal is a fantastic source of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, and additionally being a decent protein source. Probiotics are once in a while given to the chicks during placement and before transportation.

Certified Organic Diets
Home-mixed diets are especially valuable to certified natural poultry producers. In spite of the fact that pre-mixed natural poultry rations are accessible for procurement, they can be costly and maybe ought to be dispatched from long distances.

Feed Additives in the Diet
Feed additives are added to improve the efficiency of broiler growth, laying capacity of layers, prevent diseases and to promote health. The feed additives used in poultry diet include amino acids, vitamins, antimicrobials, pH control agent, and enzymes. Protein and amino acids form an important building block in poultry nutrition. The quality of protein is graded by its illegal amino acid digestibility, the higher the digestibility the better is the ingredient as a protein source. Deficiency of essential amino acids results in retarded growth or reduced egg size or reduced egg production.

To help the industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of the birds, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche products with a brand name; “KiFAY”- an Amino Acid Optimizer. It is an all in one product for optimizing your poultry feed and production.

MOA OF KiFAY: It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.
The reason why we should use KiFAY:-

  • In broilers it increases the weight by improving feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein utilization.
  • In layers KiFAY enhances the quality and other parameters of egg like;
  • Egg shell weight by 9-10%, Egg shell thickness by 15%, Egg weight 8%, Egg length from 15-16%, Egg width from 32-33%
  • It also reduces faecal nitrogen deposition by improving protein turnover.
  • It acts as a hepatoprotectant by inhibiting free radicals causing damage to the liver cells.
  • It optimizes immunomodulation by enhancing Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)

Thus KiFAY acts as a performance enhancer in poultry.

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry Production

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry ProductionIf you are considering establishing an organic poultry enterprise, there are many issues you will need to think about. These are some of the most important:

Soil type: The soil needs to be relatively free draining. Heavy, wetland not only makes access difficult, it also creates more challenges for the birds;

Shelter: Poultry needs a sheltered environment. Exposed locations should be avoided if possible

Labour: Organic poultry production is more labour intensive than conventional systems; the birds are housed in smaller groups, often in mobile housing. As the houses are often moved around the farm, there may be instances where the birds are some distance from the farm buildings;

Infrastructure: Water should be available in the house (both at the brooding and rearing stages), and preferably also on the range. You will need good access all year round, to feed, observe and manage the birds. At certain points in the rotation, the houses may be some distance from the farmyard, and this may mean a significant amount of travelling, sometimes in less than ideal weather conditions.

Capital: A considerable amount of capital investment is required to establish a successful and efficient organic poultry production unit of any reasonable size. This may, depending on whether there are existing slaughter facilities available to you, also require setting up a processing unit on the farm.

Feed: The move towards 100% organic ration, increasing feed prices and the emphasis organic principles place on home grown feed mean that feed is a major consideration when considering setting up or converting to an organic poultry system.

Neonatal Poultry Nutrition

Neonatal Poultry NutritionOver the last five decades, improvements in nutrition and genetic selection have reduced the time required to produce a 2 Kg broiler within 1.7 FCR. The neonatal period is defined as the first seven days of the production cycle after hatch. It is a crucial time when the chick requires special management and nutrition. Efforts to control metabolic disorders such as ascites and leg problems have led to recommending early feed restriction during the first two weeks post-hatch. Thus, it is essential to know the effect of poultry management practices on subsequent chick development. A paper presented in the ohio university explains the importance of the relationship of neonatal nutrition to muscle development. Muscle growth and development can be divided into two distinct periods: hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

Hyperplasia is an embryonic period characterized by proliferation of muscle fiber number, whereas hypertrophy is a post-hatch muscle growth, which results in the enlargement of existing muscle fibers. Nutritional deprivation has a significant effect on the myoblast cells. Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of an immediate post-hatch, feed restriction on the breast muscle formation. The increased number of nuclei in muscle fibers correlates with increased synthesis of protein and muscle fiber size enlargement. Myoblast cells are extremely responsive to the mitogenic effects of their environment, including nutrition. A 42-day length of studies conducted with feed restriction on the neonatal chickens showed a significant difference morphologically in the development and structure of the breast muscle between the feed restricted and unrestricted diet treatments. It also increased deposition of fat in the breast muscle of the birds with the 20% feed restriction.

Conclusion:

Nutrient deprivation in the first few days after hatch may interfere with normal muscle protein development in broiler chicks. However, if you believe that flavor and juiciness follow the fat, there may be some benefit from early feed restriction.

What is The Term Matrix Related to The Poultry Feed Industry?

Matrix Related To The Poultry Feed IndustryMatrix is a term people will generally relate to the Keanu Reeves; even google will present you with this as a first page result. However matrix in the feed analogy is more related to something mathematical. The words digestible nutrients of feed ingredients and matrix are generally used as synonyms. But matrix actually represents the nutrients available in the feed additive together with the nutrients spared or made available by use of the same additive in the feed formulation. It represents the total nutrition provided to the animal body directly or indirectly by affecting the digestibility of feed. So, what is the use of matrix? We all remember our schooling days in mathematics and associate with a name called as Linear programming problems acronym as LPP. These are mathematical equations to link variables together to extract optimum results. One can set the key parameters such as price, dosage, availability, standards as variables with monetary profits as realistic outcomes. To give an example of LPP, let’s try this, for what combination of three machines A, B and C can work together with efficiency using each others limitations on different levels of time, use, power and accuracy to obtain an algorithm best suitable to manufacture maximum units of D in the least possible time, consuming least electricity and maintaining quality standards by reducing standard deviation. In layman terms it will give you a method of best utilization of available resources. So a matrix will enable us to use LPP, which are now-a-days coded in software’s that help in formulating feed.

So how does one calculate the matrix of a feed additive? The answer is to run digestibility trials. These trials evaluate the nutritional availability from the ingredient to the animal. The availability can be further refined as in case of terms in energy as gross energy, metabolizable energy and so on. The digestibility trials also are needed to be refined on the basis of species, age, breed, sex and diet. A mature broiler breeder will have an ability to digest nutrients from corn which will be a different for a layer chick and a corn-soy diet with fish meal will have different matrix then a corn-soy-bran diet with lupins. Once individual ingredient digestibility values are calculated the nutritional content can be corrected with these fractions to determine their true potential in feed formulations. Many phytogenic origin products have tried to replace certain high cost matrix products in the feed. But very few have succeeded to relate the plant sourced additive in terms of a compatible matrix value. The matrix can be also formed on the basis of growth studies where ingredient for ingredient replacement can be tested by using performance parameters. A correlation graph can be utilised to compare the new ingredients which fit better in an LPP for cost reduction with the old ones, falling short on the price front or other long term frontiers. In case of certain additives like phytase enzymes which result in mobilization phosphorus, the tibial ash content comparisons are also used to form matrix.

An in vivo digestibility assay in case of poultry ideally focuses of ileal sampling of digesta and deductively analysing the same with oral fed feed. The birds are sacrificed and digesta is sampled at different levels of the gut to understand the digestibility of ingredients. As ileum is the terminal region of the small intestine and digestion is considered at its optimum here, the feed sampled in these zones is used for developing a matrix. The fecal collection is generally contaminated with renal excretions and is not considered as ideal to evaluate digestibility of precision fed feed. The most accurate theoretical method to estimate digestibility values is to use cecectomized roosters. Only few attempts to replicate the digestive values in vitro are successful and are not as accurate as in vivo methods. Most of the values tested in vitro were based on activity of enzymes on a certain feed grain and do not replicate real time complexities of in vivo trials.

Research is now moving to the molecular level, and ultimately it is the nutrients that are utilised at a cellular level that matter the most. Current digestibility studies focus on the nutrients absorbed from the intestinal lumen to the blood, whereas growth studies compare the net benefits from the additive. In the future our goal should be a point of intersection between these two studies with molecular markers used to light up our path to the least cost matrix for success.

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens - Vinayak Ingredients

We all know amino acids are building blocks of life. The application of amino acids in feed industry has been since four decades. Amino acids for feed now play key role in improving the efficiency of protein utilisation in animal feeding. Among others, let’s discuss DL-Methionine since it’s the first limiting amino acid, followed by L-Lysine and L-Threonine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid required by poultry in sufficient amount for optimum body weight gain or egg production. Deficiency of methionine therefore causes retarded growth in broilers and reduced egg production in layers. On the other hand, surplus of methionine has been associated with atherosclerosis. Methionine is also a major constituent in feather formation. Its deficiency leads to poor feather growth and rise in the feather pecking in order to obtain adequate methionine. This behaviour can lead to cannibalism among the flocks. This could be the worst nightmare ever possible to farmers. To our rescue, synthetic DL-Methionine began finding its way into poultry industry since late 1950s. Till now broiler requirements are been met by the use of synthetic methionine since it’s affordable to the farmers. By now we can sense that how adverse effect can DL-methionine have on chickens.

The question that comes to our mind is- How safe is synthetic Methionine to poultry?

To answer this, we first need to know little background chemistry about DL-Methionine. DL-methionine contains two isomers L-form and its mirror image D-form in equal ratios. However, only L-methionine can be utilized to synthesizer protein. The second half D-methionine first needs to be converted to L form and then it’s available to use. To our surprise, D-methionine is not converted completely but around 90% in chickens. So what happens to the rest of the 10%? So if you learnt what happens in calves, it seems that it may result in elevated plasma methionine, then it could be evident that traces of DL-methionine can be found in the carcasses of Methionine fed broilers. (J. P. Felix D’Mello, Amino acids in animal nutrition, CABI publishing, UK).

Poultry methionine requirements have always been into controversies. It has been heavily criticized for the use of synthetic amino acid in the feed to increase the bird growth rather than its health. Moreover, synthetic methionine disturbs the whole system of nitrogen cycle in the poultry. This has led to the prohibition on the use of synthetic methionine in animal feed formulation by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.

But not forgetting that a well balanced dietary protein and amino acids for poultry is a high priority issue among nutritionists for various reasons. First, cost of proteins and individual amino acids can be expensive nutrients in feed per unit weight. The price fluctuation of DL-Methionine and supply chain discrepancies result is massive shift of feed prices and reduces your profit. Therefore, selecting the appropriate level of amino acids becomes your critical economic decision. You will reach this goal only if you are dosing your methionine correctly. Inconsistency can never be avoided in an industry where raw materials are heavily applied. Therefore whatever you add in your feed diet, will surely affect your main objective. Therefore, addition of supplemental methionine in feed formulation requires precision. Second, the environmental pollution issues about nitrogen excretion from the poultry farming which can cause pollution of soil, air and water. A study shows that one percent reduction of crude protein in a diet can yield 8 to 10% reduction of nitrogen excretion. Hence it can be said that 3 to 4% reduction of crude protein with supplementation of first, second and third limiting amino acids can yield same growth performance with 30 to 40% reduction of nitrogen emission. And third, poor quality dietary proteins and amino acids can have major negative impact in heat stress conditions which is because of inefficient amino acid digestibility.

Well, many of the scientists are in constant discovery or invention to combat these hurdles. Moritz along with its colleagues in its article explains the use of feed restriction to increase commercial broiler forage intake. Thus, the plant material consumed along with any insects if available can be sufficient to obtain methionine. To read more see (Moritz, J. S., A. S. Parsons, N. P. Buchanan, N. J. Baker, J. Jaczynski, O. J. Gekara and W. B. Bryan. 2005. Synthetic methionine and feed restriction effects on performance and meat quality of organically reared broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14:521–535). However, the availability of the methionine solely depends on the forage composition and its management. Also providing large scale flocks with quality pasture would be difficult. In addition, the forage quality and quantity will differ significantly time to time.

Halder and Roy have compared the performance of broilers between no added methionine group, synthetic methionine fed group and herbal derived methionine group (Halder, G. and B. Roy, 2007. Effect of herbal or synthetic methionine on performance, cost benefit ratio, meat and feather quality of broiler chicken. Int. J. Agric. Res., 2: 987-996). The results show that liver triglycerides in methionine fed group were evidently high in contrast to herbal derived methionine group. Overall performance in both methionine-supplemented groups was found similar (higher than the methionine deficient group). However, the quality of the protein makes it difficult in digestibility in the intestine.

To summarise, there is still no proper way out to this crisis. Remember, Science is never done, it’s always changing. The goal of science is to devise framework, to describe how things works together, to study things are right now so that we can predict how things will be in the future. And so if we learn to trust science in all its fuzziness and incompleteness, it can prove to be best tool to find solution to these problems. After all, animal welfare, managing food safety and environmental issues are our major concerns.

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility - Vinayak IngredientsKifay, the natural amino acid optimiser is the product to watch as it has the capability to enhance the ileal amino acid digestibility due to the specific natural ingredients in its composition.

Amino acid supplementation in poultry is considered as an essential part of poultry nutrition. Methionine is the first limiting amino acid in poultry important for optimum growth, feed conversion and immunity. The protein nutrition is directly related to the illeal amino acid digestibility; this term can be divided further into apparent illeal amino acid digestibility or true amino acid digestibility.

The debate is already on as to what type of digestibility is to be considered while making a feed formulation; although it is undeniable that digestibility of protein is utmost important and all digestible amino acid systems are superior to use of total amino acid system in feed formulation.

The amino acids contained in feed-stuffs are not fully available to animal. It is therefore more efficient to formulate diets using values for digestible amino acids rather than total amino acids. The optimisation of amino acid supply leads to increased animal performance and, because the ingested protein is better balanced for animal’s requirements, nitrogen excretion is reduced.