Respiratory diseases in pigs is undoubtedly the most important health concern for swine producers today. It is the leading cause of mortality in the nursery and grower-finisher stages of pigs, surveyed by National Animal Health Monitoring System. Recent studies have reported prevalence of pneumonia in half of the population at slaughter.
What are the primary problems considered in swine industry worldwide?
Respiratory infections in swine is often the result of a combination of primary and opportunistic pathogens. Adverse environmental and managemental conditions play an important role in the respiratory disease complex. Porcine Respiratory Complex is the interaction of viral, bacterial, and adverse managemental conditions, describes pneumonia of multiple etiology causing clinical disease and failure to gain weight later in the finishing process (15 to 20 weeks of age).
In Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), depending on PRRD virus strain, dose, and immune status, some farms may be sub-clinically infected with the virus while others experience severe reproductive and respiratory disease.
Primary pathogens include Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as the viral agents, such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus and Swine Influenza virus. Common secondary invaders include Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Actinobacillus suis and Salmonella choleraesuis.
Environmental factors that contribute to Swine Respiratory Disease include:
- Frequent mixing of pigs
- High humidity
- High ammonia levels
- Temperature fluctuation
Working to minimize these factors can help improve pig health.
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