Vitamin D 3 : Alpha Vitamin for Birds

Vitamin D 3 : Alpha Vitamin for Birds

In fowls, vitamin D is responsible for normal growth, egg production, shell quality, and reproduction. Vitamin D 3 (1,25dihydroxycholecalciferol) is involved in Ca and P absorption in the gut, bone mineralization (bone formation) and demineralization (bone mobilization); Ca and phosphate reabsorption by the kidneys.

Commercial layers are usually maintained indoors, and do not receive enough sunlight to convert 7-dihydrocholesterolin sufficient levels to supply their vitamin D 3 requirements. This is why vitamin D is routinely added to layer feeds, which is essential for the maintenance of egg production, eggshell formation, and calcium homeostasis.

Deficiency Diseases of Vitamin D in Birds

The two most prominent forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2 ) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ). Vitamin D 3 is an important nutrient for chickens, especially for growing chicks and laying hens.

The inadequacy of vitamin D in birds results in rickets, retarded growth, soft and rubbery beak, hypocalcemia, parathyroid hyperplasia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, a marked expansion of epiphyseal growth plates including cartilage hypertrophy, failure of calcification of cartilage and osteoid, and fibrous osteodystrophy.

In hens, a vitamin D deficiency adversely affects egg production and causes calcium deficiency. The need for vitamin D depends to a large extent on the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The vitamin D needs of poultry are increased several folds by inadequate levels of calcium and (or) phosphorus or by improper ratios of these minerals in the diet.

Vitamin D Metabolism in the Body

Cholecalciferol (D 3 ) is the most common form of vitamin D added to feeds. After absorption by the intestinal mucosa, it is transported to the liver, where it is hydroxylated in the position 25, resulting in 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D 3 ). This metabolite is directed to the kidneys and hydroxylated at carbon 1, originating the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 D 3 ). Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of a calcium binding protein in the intestine.

Dynamic Alpha, is Bio-enhanced Natural D 3 Booster

It is an extract of Solanum plant species (Natural absorbance enhancers). It
increases the absorption efficiency of liposoluble vitamin D 3 present in the feed of birds. It maintains homeostasis of Ca:P in body, improves bone density, increases egg shell thickness and vitamin D levels of eggs.
Feeding recommendation
 Layers – 250-500 g/tonne of feed
 Broiler – 250-500 g/tonne of feed
 Breeder – 500 g/tonne of feed OR as directed by Veterinarian/Nutritionist

Mitigating Common Hazards at Poultry Farms, Backing Up The Eradication Program

Mitigating Common Hazards at Poultry Farms, Backing Up The Eradication Program

Over the decades, scientists have been putting grueling efforts to increase the profitability in poultry industry from all possible ways. The results have been fruitful so far as we see double digit growth in the industry every year. However, it is still a challenge to tackle some common infections at the farm level viz E. coli, Salmonella sp, Pasteurella sp, Mycoplasma sp, Compylobacter sp etc.
What are the common ways to prevent disease occurrences at a farm ?
All over the world, the industry fellows are using multi-directed approach to minimize and eradicate the diseases. To mention some at farm; filling cracks and crevasses, placing traps for insects and rodents, consistent cleaning, disinfection, regular monitoring of the shed for infections, biosafety measures, and vaccination schedules.Not so long ago, have researchers found remarkable effects on minimizing pathogenic infections by using ayurvedic phyto-molecules. These herbal compounds not only reduce the chances of disease out-breaks but also build birds’ immunity; have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is cited in many scientific articles that uses of herbs in poultry feed have substantially improved performance of the birds and longevity of the production cycles in layers.

HERBOFLOXIN, A Natural Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin is a unique micro emulsified formulation of phyto-active
ingredients. Its administration is through water which allows it to neutralize water sanitizers and pH. Anti-microbial functions of the herbs such as Thymus vulgaris, Eucalyptus, Syzygium and Citronella, prevents entry of pathogen through water and rapid spread of the infection. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of Herbofloxin helps in healing and recovery.

Essentiolitt, A Litter Amendment System

Essentiolitt is an efficient bioaerosol cleanser; credits to anti-urease action of Essentiolitt for minimizing NH3 release in deep litter systems. It prevents
harmful effects on the birds and reduces ammonia release in the environment. It reduces wetness of the litter and destroys pathogenic microbes in the litter.

Thus, supports biosecurity at the farm. The combination of organic acids and essential oils also acts as an odor control system in the shed. At last, Essentiolitt facilitates the growth of harmless microflora for better litter to manure conversion.
Organic and safe products like Herbofloxin and Essentiolitt are the best
substitute for antibiotic growth promoter in the emerging market. The efficacy of these products has been creating an unique global market in the recent years.
Click on the products to follow links for more information about the products and their recommended doses.

Hidden Profits in the Immune System of Poultry

Hidden Profits in the Immune System of Poultry

While dwelling through the last couple of decades, poultry industry is been thriving incredibly. Beside assimilating profitable traits during selections, immune system is been underestimated; arising to increased susceptibility for pathogens, environmental and managemental factors. The time from hatching to the onset of feeding is a critical period in the development of hatchling chicks. Around 2-5% of hatchlings do not survive this critical post-hatch period because of limited body reserves, and many survivors exhibit stunted growth, inefficient feed utilisation, reduced disease resistance or poor meat yield.

The gut represents an evolving ecosystem crosstalk between the immunity and microbiota. Knowledge on poultry immunity facilitates the development of antibiotic alternative strategies to improve growth potential of poultry. Optimal combinations of various alternatives, coupled with good management and husbandry practices, is the key to maximize performance.

Compromised immunity leading to an increase in the incidence of metabolic disorders, reduced resistance to infectious disease like Marek’s diseases, Egg drop syndrome, Necrotic enteritis, Coccidiosis, Infectious bursal diseases, etc; and higher mortality. In routine practice, some chicks of a hatch may often spend up to 36-48 hours without any access to feed or water. This causes poor viability and retarded growth. Thus, the time from hatching to the onset of receiving nutrition is a critical period in the development of hatchling poultry.

Appropriate nutrition and access to feed immediately after hatch can accelerate yolk utilisation and stimulate the growth and development of immune systems. So, why delay? Providing nutrients immediately post-hatch contributes to poultry enterprise profitability.

NUCLEOVIN, an Immune Optimizer

Our innovative research team has brought a state-of-the-art recipe which fulfils the deficits and modulates immunity directly. NUCLEOVIN is a potential immunomodulator, contains nucleotides, probiotics and vitamin C in its active forms. Numerous experiments on the product have shown highly significant outcomes. It can either be fed for prophylactic purpose as a non-antibiotic growth promoter or along with antidotes during outbreaks and also as a stress reliever.
Action zones of NUCLEOVIN – Immunosuppression: In environmental temperature, diseases, toxicity, vaccination, forced moulting and imbalanced nutrition; Reproductive performance: Fertility, hatchability and egg production.
Benefits
Improved FCR, enhanced vaccine action, optimum hatchability, fertility, embryo survival and development, improved egg characteristics, reduced toxin stress, improved feed intake and FCR in heat stress, diseases resistance and reduced mortality.
Feeding recommendation
• 1g per litre of drinking water
• 150-250g per tonne of feed
Recommended feeding schedule
Chicks: First 14 days
Broilers: First 4 weeks

Layers: First 4 weeks
• During stress periods until feed intake and production are retained back to normal

Challenging Re-emergence of Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry Losses and Severity of Clostridial Toxins

Refraining the use of antibiotics in poultry feed has aggravated outbreaks of Necrotic enteritis (NE) even more often. NE is an acute Clostridium infection characterized by severe necroses of intestinal mucosa. The disease begins suddenly, with a sharp increase in death rate. The disease usually persists in a flock for 5–10 days, and mortality is 50%. The causative agent is the gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens. There are two primary Cl. perfringens types, A and C, associated with NE in poultry.
Pathogenesis and clinical signs
Cl. perfringens is a nearly ubiquitous bacteria readily found in soil, dust, faeces, feed, and used poultry litter. It is also a normal inhabitant of the intestines of healthy chickens and turkeys. The enterotoxaemia that results in NE most often occurs either after a change in the intestinal microflora or from a condition that results in damage to the intestinal mucosa (eg, coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis, salmonellosis, parasitic infection, etc).
Chickens at the age of 25 weeks are usually affected, NE is also encountered in hens particularly near the period of the beginning of egg laying or peak egg laying, most commonly associated with coccidiosis. In acute cases, marked congestion of liver, responsible for its dark red to black appearance, is present. Intestinal content is bloody, mixed with necrotic debris and gas bubbles. The diagnosis is based on the distinctive gross lesions. Toxins produced by the bacteria cause damage to the small intestine, liver lesions, and mortality.
While researchers still paving a way to develop a substitute as functional as antibiotics, administration of selected probiotics or competitive cultures has been used successfully to both prevent and treat clinical necrotic enteritis (presumably for prophylactic proliferation of Cl. perfringens).

NOVAPRO, a natural blend of probiotics for digestion and gut health.
The probiotic used in NOVAPRO (viz. Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulans and B. pumilus) are GRAS qualified in the US and qualifies the criteria of QPS as per EFSA for EU countries. They are highly heat stable and forms an endospore to survive extreme environmental conditions of temperature and desiccation.

How does NOVAPRO work as Non-antibiotic Growth Promoter?
Bacillus subtilis, B. coagulans and B. pumilus (Each 5 billion CFU/g) are known for their ability to degrade proteins extra-cellularly. They produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) which helps in inhibition of certain kinds of entero-pathogens which are harmful to poultry. This combination gets quickly established in the gut, provide growth of friendly bacteria, reduces intestinal pH and drives out harmful pathogens like Cl. perfringens, E. coli and Salmonella species. Additionally, the probiotics peptides enhance immune responses preventing the growth of pathogens.

Features and Benefits
• Probiotics stay viable in water for longer duration
• It has proven compatibility with antibiotics, anti-microbial growth promoters, coccidiostats and acidifiers
• Supports gut health and immune system
• Can withstand pH fluctuations from 3.8 to 9.5
• Low inclusion rate, no withdrawal period and can be administered throughout the lifecycle

Feeding Recommendation
1 g per litre of drinking water
150 – 200 g / tone of feed

WOODY BREAST – A REPULSIVE TEXTURAL TRAIT IN Broilers

WOODY BREAST – A REPULSIVE TEXTURAL TRAIT IN Broilers

People at the processing plants are getting better at identifying the condition and handling it before it gets to restaurants or consumers who would report it having been disappointed with the quality of their purchase. The affected meat tastes woody and stringy, some experts describe the texture as being “gummy”.
The heavier the bird, and the larger the quantity of meat on it, the more likely it is to develop woody breast. While the condition can be found in leg meat, it typically affects breast meat, with enough impact to disrupt the supply chain. In the laboratory, the condition can be detected in chicks as young as a week old.
ETIOLOGY AND MICROSCOPIC CHANGES IN THE MEAT
It was noted that only ten percent of breast meat has woody breast, but it can be detected by looking for pale meat with bulging areas. White stripes on the meat are also indicative of texture and taste defects in the meat. Also, chickens weighing more than nine pounds seem to be more likely to have woody breast syndrome Intensive breeding in broilers to strengthen the genetic markers for large breast meat, and this is thought to be a factor in the development of woody breast in recent years. The reported changes are: oxidation of proteins in muscles, muscle fibre degeneration (Myopathy) and an increased deposition of connective tissue and fat microscopically. In addition, it has been noted that birds with woody breast have a decreased water-holding capacity, and are slightly larger on the growth curve than other birds. Heavier birds at one week old were more likely to have a
predisposition to develop the condition.

VARIOUS IDENTIFYING METHODS TO DETECT WOODY MEAT
The US has brought Certified Quality Reader (CQR), is a first ever, non-invasive, handheld device that instantaneously detects and measures woody breast in broiler fillets based on electrical impedance analysis (BIA) to detect woody breast a muscle myopathy. Also at large processing plants it might be possible to X-ray the meat or use electrical impedance measurement and different applications of imaging technology.

TENDERO, an amino acid optimizer keeps the muscles tender and free from
unpleasant textural changes like woody breast, white stripping and spaghetti meat.
Its phytoconstituents: Piperines, Flavonoids and Polyphenols, boosts protein synthesis at higher extent, lessens the percentage of myopathy and reduces
excessive fat deposition by increasing its metabolism in the myofibrils. It
improves marination results by enhancing infusion of flavoring compounds into the chicken.
TENDERO is a specifically design natural supplement to improve sensory
characteristics is leading in the broiler industry for its benefits like improved weight gain, higher nutritive value, improved textural and processing features.
Feeding Recommendations:
Broiler finisher feeds: 1.5-2 kg per MT of feed

COVID-19, a grave shadow over poultry and feed market

COVID-19, a grave shadow over poultry and feed market

On one side the corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak has already slumped down the global economy, livestock and poultry industry has been suffering huge losses yet increasing over time. Amongst all, the Indian poultry market, which is valued over 90,000 crores has plummeted the most, resulting in more than 30% fall in the sector; which is also reported to affect 4 million employs of the country directly or indirectly.

The outlet prices have come down to 35-55Rs per kg live weight depending on the region, while 80-85Rs is cost of production per kg. As it was not enough, wholesalers saw decline in meat consumers by over 50%. At the same time there is hardly any variation in its products prices, benefiting traders in a way. Misinformation aired on the social media platforms can be blamed for the rumors for the unsupported claims of any relation of poultry and meat products with COVID-19. As per the reports, the impact is even worse in the western countries.

Already enduring livestock industry with the competitive raw ingredients prices like Soyabean and Maize in their compound feed, COVID-19 has also blown away steady growth of the industry. This will probably take long recovery period to reconcile the industry losses.

Again, to make up the bridge of pork industry affected by ASF(African swine fever), china had shown 12% growth in poultry sector last year, however after being the epicenter of novel COVID-19, the meat market is substantially disrupted. Insecurity of the supply chain has led to shut down the main feed manufacturers and slaughterhouses across the globe.

Not only the Asian countries, but also the whole world is experiencing the consequences of Corona Virus in livestock and feed industries along with fall in all markets at the start of new year. Keeping the belief on our rigorous safety practices and advanced medicine, hopefully we will soon get a breakthrough to tackle down the monstrous virus, which has already spread over more than 70 countries and costs thousands of lives and counting.

Vinayak industries private limited is stepping up with animal and feed industries to provide the best, pivotal and innovative products to heal economy, nurture and benefit the farmers while assuring safety and satisfaction to our consumers. Kindly check out our website for more content and our diverse range of scientifically studied products for multiple species.

Risk Factors Associated with Respiratory System in Poultry

Risk Factors Associated with Respiratory System in Poultry

Respiratory diseases have long been subject of extensive research due to its economic significance. Infection with these pathogens causes severe economic loss due to mortality, carcass condemnation, and reduction in the egg production, hatchability, feed efficiency and weight gain. In order to address these problems a variety of strategies has been used in the poultry industry including biosecurity, vaccination and antimicrobial therapy.

Common Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

  • Chronic Respiratory Disease
  • Aspergillosis /Brooders Pneumonia
  • Newcastle Disease
  • Infectious Bronchitis
  • Avian Diphtheria
  • Infectious Coryza
  • Avian Influenza
  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus
  • Chlamydiosis
  • Chicken Pox  

In poultry sheds, bird density, dust and heat permanently expose birds to various forms of respiratory issues. Poultry birds are endowed with effective mechanisms to expel irritants, microorganisms and spores, but these defenses are fragile. In a very dusty environment, 1m3 of air can contain more than 10 million microorganisms!

How Does Poultry Defense System Work Against Poor Quality or Contaminated Air ?

Trachea and bronchi walls are covered with cilia. By contracting, these cilia cause the mucus and all the particles sticking inside to move towards the upper parts of the respiratory tract where they are expectorated (sneezed out) or swallowed. This is named the “mucocillary escalator”.

Dust: vectors for transmission of microbial, viral and fungal agents in poultry houses. Now it sometimes happens that this system cannot effectively play its defense role, if it is saturated with too much dust, paralyzed by an excess of ammonia concentration, or destroyed by a viral infection. An excess of ammonia concentration ( >10ppm ) in the air will paralyze the cilia of the respiratory system.

Any such attack on the defenses of the respiratory system will affect the quality and quantity of mucus in Avian. If mucus is too watery or too abundant it can cause a blockage in the trachea. This may result in a bacterial infection or bird’s death by asphyxia.

How to Prevent Respiratory Issues and Improve Air Quality in Poultry ?

We have brought all-rounder herbal respiratory tonic MucoFort® in the market, which helps in stimulating protective mechanism and revitalizing respiratory system. Its decongesting properties provide instant relieve. It allows birds to breathe normally and improve 2 transport to the cells and reduces gasping.

Phytoconstituents of MucoFort® increase the density of goblet cells which ultimately results in production of healthy thick layer of Mucin which protects the respiratory epithelium from attacks of pathogenic organisms alongside it makes the lumen wide for proper respiration and expulsion of inflammatory discharge like cellular debris and fibrinous exudates.

MucoFort® is an outcome of continuous research; its test reports have shown remarkable results on common respiratory conditions like congestion, hemorrhages, inflammatory secretions, diphtheritic membranes and edema.

Antibiotics as Growth promoters –is a bane or a boon?

To answer this question it is important to develop understanding about, what is the function of an antibiotic and how it does exactly promote growth in the animals. Also, how natural alternatives can effectively prove to be better substitute.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that are used to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms that often cause variety of diseases in animals; hence they are used as therapeutic drugs.

However, there has been the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry, in order to improve meat production through increased feed conversion, growth rate promotion and disease prevention. The postulated mechanisms for growth promotion using antibiotics are as follows-

  1. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) inhibit endemic subclinical infection
  2. Reduce growth depressing metabolites like ammonia or bile degrading products produced by microbes
  3. Reduce microbial use of nutrients
  4. Enhance uptake and use of nutrients because intestinal wall of AGP fed animal is thinner

However, prolonged use of antibiotics results into resistant microbial strains that pose a greater threat not only to the animals but also humans at large when these strains enter the food chain. Hence the use of antibiotics should be highly restricted.

An effective solution to the addressed issue would be use of natural derivatives that can exhibit similar growth promoting effects in the animal without posing a threat to the food chain.

Herbofloxin is a Natural Growth Promoter, composed of several natural origin derivatives which work in conjunction to produce effects similar to AGP.    

These plant-derived compounds mainly exert their beneficial effects as follows:

  1. Disrupt cell membrane of microbes
  2. Interfere with virulence properties of the microbes by increasing the hydrophobicity, which influences surface characteristics of microbial cells and make them susceptible to immune system
  3. Stimulates growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut
  4. Act as immunostimulants
  5. Protects intestine from microbial attack
  6. Enhances the production and/or activity of the digestive enzymes
  7. Stimulate the proliferation and growth of absorptive cells (villus and crypt) in the gastrointestinal tract and increases nutrient absorption

Thus the cumulative result of these actions show growth promoting effects on the gut of the animal that mimics the effect of AGP. Hence Natural Growth Promoters like Herbofloxin prove to be effective AGP replacers.

How to increase Performance and Production in Poultry

As poultry farming has already proven to be a profitable business with minimum investment. A combination of quality nutrition, veterinary guidance and biosecurity in farm and bird management will help to ensure birds have the best possible chance to perform at their maximum potential.

The term FLAWS actually serves as a prompt for a detailed approach for the good management practices, not only during brooding stage but throughout the life of the flock. This reminds for the routine check for basic parameters such as feed, light, litter, air, water, bio security, sanitation, space and staff.

Pre-placement preparation

Advance preparation is needed before the new flock arrives to prevent losses during brooding and the rest of grow out.

Brooding management

Brooding is a period immediately after the hatch when special care and attention is given to chicks to support their health and survival. Since recently hatched chick has not yet developed their body mechanism to regulate its body temperature hence, it cannot maintain its body temperature properly for the first few weeks. Therefore the room temperature need to be adjust the temperature to 35°C (95F) at the edge of the brooder 2 inches (5cm) above the litter during the initial few weeks. Lower the temperature by 2.85°C (5F) each week until it reaches 70°F. Thus temperature of 21°C appears to be ideal during growing period. 

Litter management

The litter in a poultry house acts as bedding for the birds. Litter condition and quality have an impact on poultry health and profitability.

Proper management of wet litter is important for intestinal health of birds. Without proper management, wet litter can serve as a potent source for hazardous pathogens and may also act as a start point for stress and infection that develops and leads to disease.

Also, wet litter problems increase, ammonia levels in the farm rise that are potentially detrimental to bird health.

Sometimes, when the litter is too dry and dusty becomes an indicator that the birds may not be drinking enough. The dry feces in the powder form may lead to respiratory problems.

Water management

Water is the most crucial nutrient for poultry. Drinking water accounts for 70–80 percent of the bird’s daily physiological needs. Poultry will generally consume more water than feed. An abundance of clean water will reduce challenges and maximize performance.

Feed management

Proper balanced feed formulated on the basis of age, sex and physiological need helps in making the poultry full grown and disease free. Good feed quality that avoids contaminants such as mycotoxins is important to ensure performance.

Stocking density

Overcrowding during housing conditions generates high stress in poultry.  This has a negative impact on performance and production. Lowering stocking density throughout the overall production of the poultry may help to reduce stress.

Environmental management

General environmental management of the farm includes many components. Coccidiosis is one of the diseases of consideration based on the living condition of poultry.

As the poultry ingest eggs of parasite from contaminated litter, and these pass into the intestinal tract, They targets the intestinal cells. Several cycles of replication occur which lead to the formation of new oocysts which are shed in the feces. When the suitable environmental conditions like temperature and humidity prevails, the oocysts sporulate and become infective. The entire cycle takes 4 to 6 days. Thus massive immense replication during intracellular phase makes the parasite a serious problem in farm management.

Mortality checks

Cull diseased birds as early as possible.

Look into your Poultry Feed…

As the Monsoon has arrived, high humidity in an environment and feed exposed to such environment can easily retain moisture. This results in the degradation of feed nutritive value.

This high moisture provides ambient conditions to grow mould and fungi. Elevating the risk of various toxins in the feed. Since these toxins are secondary metabolites of fungus and moulds resulting in degrading the feed quality and ultimately reflecting an adverse effect on poultry performance and production.

Feed contaminated with fungus such as Aspergillus flavus results into mycotoxins commonly known as aflatoxins (AF), B1, B2, G1 and G2 etc.  Affecting the birds as:-

1. Reduction of feed intake

2. Poor nutrient absorption and altered nutrient metabolism

3. Frequent disease outbreak in flocks

4. Gastrointestinal and hepatic problems   

5. Poor FCR and egg production and high mortality

So to avoid such conditions consequently, necessary prevention and well effective methods should be taken to detoxify toxins-containing feedstuffs. Therefore, one should select a toxin binder that should complete bind the different toxins and expelling the toxin from the system completely. It should avoid minerals and vitamins to be cheated in gut. Along with this, it should be hepato protectively and rejuvenating the lost liver cells due to toxin damage.

Developing a toxin binder which is natural in origin will help in optimizing the nutrient absorption and biotransformation of various toxins from the system. Natural ingredients like bioactive charcoal and clay help to bind the toxins from the system. Organic acids help in maintaining the normal gut pH and act as mould inhibitor. Prebiotics helps to maintain beneficial gut microflora in the birds. Herbal extracts provide hepatoprotective and hepato stimulant effect and improve the feed digestion for better performance and production of the bird.

Thus in nutshell, a toxin binder should prevent the formation and bio-activation of mycotoxins into toxic metabolites, prevent systemic deleterious effects of absorbed mycotoxins, improve liver function, enhance the utilization of nutrients, FCR and production performance in poultry.