Advance newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

Colostrum management and the composition of fluid fed; the use of various additives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and proteins from hyperimmunized eggs or plasma proteins; and housing can all influence the health of newborn calves.

Which are The Common Culprits of Neonatal Calves?

It is well documented that dairy calves are extremely susceptible to enteric diseases and mortality during the first few weeks of life. The latest reports from the USDA’s National Animal Health and Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2007) report that the national mortality rate of heifer calves from 48 hour of life to weaning is approximately 7.8 to 10.8 %.

Producer perceived records indicate that scours account for 56.5 to 60.5 % of all pre-weaned deaths. Approximately ¼ of all pre-weaned calves are therapeutically treated for scours, and the major causes of death from scours are either dehydration or the pathogen gains access to the blood and causes septicemia. The high incidences of disease indicate we have much to learn about improving gastrointestinal disease resistance among pre-weaned calves. In addition, some data indicates that early life nutrition can have long-term impacts on leukocyte responses and disease resistance.

How does Neonatal Care Compound Long Term Profits?

It is well known that calves are future herd, may it be for dairy or beef market. Thus, the performance of calves is totally dependent on the nutritional and managemental practices during first three months. It plays a key role in the economy of farms because they increase operating costs and if compromised it can adversely affect long-term productivity of the animal. The maintenance of calf health and optimizing their growth are pivotal objectives especially at early stages of life.

Newborn calves are immunologically naive at birth. They have had no chance to enhance adaptive immunity by ‘‘experience’’ because of the protective environment in the womb, which also limits the activation of phagocytes and their entry into the tissues. The ingestion of colostrum is essential for providing neonates with immunologic protection during at least the first 2 to 4 weeks of life. Colostrum is composed primarily of antibodies, cytokines, and leucocytes. Calves that ingest colostrum shortly after birth have significant concentrations of immunoglobulin in serum, whereas colostrum-deprived calves have only trace amounts of immunoglobulin during the first 3 days of life.

Use of Feed Additives in Early Calf Nutrition

The developmental immaturity of the immune system of the neonatal calf presents a predisposing factor toward increased morbidity and mortality. As nutrition of calf is crucial many feed additives are being used in calf’s diet. With the restricted use or ban of dietary antimicrobial agents the trend is towards more ‘natural’ animal production systems. Phytochemicals,
prebiotics, probiotics with rich sources of essential vitamins and minerals can influence microorganisms through an anti-microbial activity or through a favorable stimulation of the microflora and favors healthy growth.

Neostart, Necessary Neonatal Care

Why Neostart? It is a supplement exclusively designed for newborn calves to fulfil all essential nutrients’ need. When calves are stressed, their appetite and digestibility often decrease; meanwhile, the nutritional demand of their growing bodies increases. This leads to the loss of appetite, depressed activity, suppressed immune system, reduced growth rates and digestive disorders. This is the sensitive period for the calves where Neostart plays a key role.

What does Neostart contain? Energy in the form of digestible sugars and essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, multi-strain probiotics to seed digestive tract with beneficial microflora, prebiotics and natural colostrum. Its indications are at birth and weaning, during stress and transportation, post-antibiotic therapy, and in digestive disorders in young ones. It is available in powder and paste form for reliable and easy administration.

Kindly follow Neostart link to go onto the literature of the product and write us on sales@vinayakcorporation.com for more details.

Antibiotics as Growth promoters –is a bane or a boon?

To answer this question it is important to develop understanding about, what is the function of an antibiotic and how it does exactly promote growth in the animals. Also, how natural alternatives can effectively prove to be better substitute.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that are used to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms that often cause variety of diseases in animals; hence they are used as therapeutic drugs.

However, there has been the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry, in order to improve meat production through increased feed conversion, growth rate promotion and disease prevention. The postulated mechanisms for growth promotion using antibiotics are as follows-

  1. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) inhibit endemic subclinical infection
  2. Reduce growth depressing metabolites like ammonia or bile degrading products produced by microbes
  3. Reduce microbial use of nutrients
  4. Enhance uptake and use of nutrients because intestinal wall of AGP fed animal is thinner

However, prolonged use of antibiotics results into resistant microbial strains that pose a greater threat not only to the animals but also humans at large when these strains enter the food chain. Hence the use of antibiotics should be highly restricted.

An effective solution to the addressed issue would be use of natural derivatives that can exhibit similar growth promoting effects in the animal without posing a threat to the food chain.

Herbofloxin is a Natural Growth Promoter, composed of several natural origin derivatives which work in conjunction to produce effects similar to AGP.    

These plant-derived compounds mainly exert their beneficial effects as follows:

  1. Disrupt cell membrane of microbes
  2. Interfere with virulence properties of the microbes by increasing the hydrophobicity, which influences surface characteristics of microbial cells and make them susceptible to immune system
  3. Stimulates growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut
  4. Act as immunostimulants
  5. Protects intestine from microbial attack
  6. Enhances the production and/or activity of the digestive enzymes
  7. Stimulate the proliferation and growth of absorptive cells (villus and crypt) in the gastrointestinal tract and increases nutrient absorption

Thus the cumulative result of these actions show growth promoting effects on the gut of the animal that mimics the effect of AGP. Hence Natural Growth Promoters like Herbofloxin prove to be effective AGP replacers.

How to improve milk production in cattle using natural supplements

A high yielding animal requires a customized diet formulated after understanding the highly integrated metabolic pathways that ensures better qualitative and quantitative yield.

Milk composition is economically important to milk producers and processors and nutritionally important to consumers. Hence, there has been stringency in the assessment and evaluation of milk, which includes determining parameters like SNF (Solid Not Fat) that has become the price-determining factor in the dairy industry. Thus, increase in SNF is highly desirable for the farmers. This need can be satisfied by a simple yet very effective approach that is accurate feed management. Balanced nutrition means supplying adequate amounts of macronutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients like vitamins and minerals.

Kifay is a product that provides wholesome nutrition to the animal. It is designed to improve parameters like milk yield, SNF as well as provide the animal immunity against various opportunistic infections. It has shown results on dung score and body score of the animal improving them substantially. The active ingredients of the product include Piperin, Flavonoids, Mannans extracted from natural sources.

Given below are brief role of these ingredients.

Piperine:

Enhancing the bioavailability of nutritional compound by two ways,

a) by increased absorption from the gut and

b) by slowdown of biotransformation, inactivation or elimination from the system.

Flavonoids:

They have anti-oxidative properties. They modify rumen microbial activity and create desirable fermentation conditions such as pH regulation, propionate proportion and protein degradation. Once absorbed in mammary glands after circulation in blood, they significantly alter the nutritional composition of milk.

Polyphenols:

They protect proteins from degradation and improve the efficiency of conversion of plant proteins to animal proteins (milk). By enhancing this conversion of dietary proteins, they also increase the delivery of amino acids for absorption in the small intestine, thereby improving the milk production and growth.

Mannans:

They serve as a growing medium for the beneficial flora found in the gut. They help in establishing a balance microflora in the intestine (eubiosis), They are also indirectly responsible for suppression of unwanted microbes. 

Thus all these actions work in synergy that takes care of diverse parameters which in turn have a positive influence on the animal.

Therefore, for those in quest for a product which not only provides their animal nutrition but also converts it into a better milk yield, Kifay is a reliable solution for the comprehensive growth of the animal which ultimately results into high yield and also ensures overall good health and development.

Significance of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) in Lactating Cow

Volatile fatty acids in lactating cow

Bacterial fermentation of organic matter like carbohydrate in the rumen produces Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) that is readily absorbed and serves as a source of energy to the ruminant. VFA can have a major effect on the qualitative as well as quantitative production by the ruminant.

It is well-established that diets high in soluble carbohydrates (starch and sugar) can lead to over-production of VFA, particularly propionate and lactate, and consecutively lead to a drop in rumen pH and cause sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) or acute acidosis. Cellulolytic bacteria operate within a narrow pH range and can only survive for a relatively short time below this range before their growth and activity are compromised. Thus, fiber digestion is inhibited if rumen pH remains low for long periods.

Vinyeast-P enables to fine tune the rumen environment in such a way that there is a striking balance between productivity and acidosis. Vinyeast-P is composed of Live Yeast Culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LYC) and Propioni bacteria. Their mode of action differs on the individual front although when administered as a combination they produce a better stimulating effect on the rumen synergistically.      LYC maintains the anaerobic condition of the rumen, itself being an oxygen scavenging organism, as well as stimulates the growth of other microbial anaerobes. It also enhances fiber digestion and thus improves the utilization of starch supplied in the diet. Lactic acid is prone to getting accumulated in the rumen as its absorption is much slower than propionic acid. Propionibacterium being a lactic acid utilizing bacteria helps to convert of the accumulated lactic acid to propionic acid, restoring the pH of the rumen back to normal. Thus keeps in check the detrimental effects of acidosis. Propionic acid is used by the ruminants to make blood glucose, milk protein and milk sugar lactose, thus conferring the rumen wholesome nutrition. Hence, it can be concluded that tailored production VFA is the key that assures a better yielding ruminant.

A holistic approach to bovine rumen health

The rumen of bovine can also be called “the seat of production” which governs the extent of production by the animal. Rumen is a dynamic, continuous fermentation compartment that houses a variety of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi. These microorganisms have a complex series of action on the feed consumed by the ruminant. The rumen microbes ferment fiber, starch, sugar, and protein to form volatile fatty acids that serves as a readily available source of energy to the animal and microbial protein that helps the microorganisms to reproduce rapidly in the rumen. However as the rumen serves as a fermentation chamber there are several parameters that are required to be in a specified range in order for its smooth functioning.

First and foremost the rumen is anaerobic. This means that there is little or no oxygen in it. Secondly the rumen temperature is one degree above body temperature at 39°C and pH ranges between 5.7 and 7.3. Any disruption to the delicate balance of the rumen environment will result in poor growth of the microbes, poor digestion, and ultimately, lower milk production. For instance if there occurs any slight change in the oxygen concentrations of the rumen the conditions would turn aerobic where the anaerobic microbiota does not function efficiently.

Vinyeast is a product consisting of Live Yeast Culture (LYC) derived from Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Yeast is an oxygen scavenging organism that primarily helps to maintain the balance of anaerobic nature of the rumen. Yet another benefit of using a Vinyeast is that, it is a fiber digesting organism that produces Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) like acetate, propionate and butyrate that are absorbed by the ruminant as it serves as a readily available source of energy thus beneficial to the animal. Vinyeast also releases a number of secondary metabolites like vitamins- Biotin, Thiamine and Folic Acid which are essentially used by the microbiota for rapid growth which in turn converts into high fermentation, high VFA, high energy and thus high production by the animal, hence ensuring holistic health of the rumen.  Thus fulfills the aforementioned phrase “seat of production” aptly.

Problems of Indian Dairy Industry

Problems of Indian Dairy Industry

The world’s largest milk producer and consumer of dairy products are in India, consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. Milk products are a major source of cheap animal protein and nutritious food to millions of people in world. Small scale dairy farming is the main source of income for small and marginal farmers.

The matter of consideration is that most of our livestock are “underfed” and hence suffer from “Negative Energy Balance” which hampers the milk quality and quantity. The potential productivity of our livestock is constantly decreasing due to negative protein balance, negative water balance, negative vitamin balance and Negative mineral balance. These are some simple reasons as to why milk productivity per animal in India is low.  

The huge demand of milk production is primarily the fallout of dairy farming policy reflected in Operation Flood. Following the success of dairy farming policy by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) new and updated strategies has been implanted. Improvement in standard quality parameters for laboratory analysis of milk by dairy and food Industry has been set (protein, fat, carbohydrate, total solids, sugar, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals) for milk.

To overcome the poor quality issue in the dairy sector, feed supplement that can optimize the protein demand by improving the SNF % in milk need to be focused. The maximum genetic potential capacity of animals can be explored at the cellular level, pulling more amino acids in protein synthesis. Accelerating the body translates process ultimately leading to increased protein content in milk.

Thus, in the nut shell higher the SNF, better the quality of milk criteria can be set for judging the milk quality.

In high yielding animals, during peak lactation period there is a constant demand for food that is a rich source of amino acid which support the ongoing anabolic process in the body. It should prevent animals from negative energy balance, maintaining healthy immunity status, improve protein and enhance proper body development.

IS GOAT NUTRITION OPTIMAL?

Goats are animals belonging to the category of the browser and prefer eating brushy plants and some other woody, weedy plants found on the ranges. Nutritional requirements of goats are determined by their age, sex, breed, production system (dairy or meat), body size, climate, and physiological stage. The Feeding strategies also play a vital role and help them to meet the energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin needs depending on the condition of the goats. Goats do not depend on intensive feeding systems except for some supplemental feeding during growth, lactation, pregnancy, and winter. Goats belong to the small ruminant group; this group utilizes protein most efficiently provided with a supply of amino acids that also matches tissue requirements and is utilized for growth in ruminants. The amino acids composition of body protein helps to determine the balance of amino acids required for growth in mammals. The ideal protein is a perfect ratio among individuals all amino acids and nitrogen required for optimal performance.

To help the livestock industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of ruminants, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited take our privilege to introduces one of our niche product with a brand name; KiFAY”- an Amino Acid Optimizer.  It is an all in one product for optimizing the overall performance and productivity of goats and other meat producing animals,

MOA OF KiFAY: It improves the availability of insulin receptors which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in better protein turn over. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.

The reason why we should use KiFAY:-

  • It improves hair and skin quality of the flock.
  • Enhances lean meat production.
  • Also it improves the digestibility of the food helping in more protein synthesis and weight gain.
  • It improves the milk quality and increases milk production rate
  •  It acts as an immunity enhancer.

Thus KiFAY is an all in one performance enhancer!!

Essentiality of good management practices in livestock production

Livestock industry is an important component of the agricultural sector of any country producing meat, eggs, beef, pork, eggs and other quality products of animal origin. This industry plays a vital role in market development and use of technology. Food safety is universally recognized as a public health priority. It requires a holistic approach, from production to consumption. Various aspects of animal production are at risk from biological, chemical and physical agents. These agents canenter food-producing animals and animal products through a wide variety of exposure points in the production, with high potential risks for the consumers. Therefore it is essential that Good Management Practices are followed in the meat production to address these hazards. Following are the recommended Good Practices that should be followed on the farm;

Sanitation and hygiene
All movable equipments like feeders, waterers and hovers should be removed from the house, cleaned and disinfected. The interior as well as exterior of the house should be cleaned under pressure. The house should be disinfected with any commercial disinfectant solution at the recommended concentration.

Brooder Management
Brooder house: It should be draft-free, rain-proof and protected against predators. Brooding pens should have windows for adequate ventilation. Availability of dust particles in the environment irritates the respiratory tract of the chicks. Also dust is one of the vehicles for disease transmission. Presence of more moisture in the environment causes ammonia fumes which irritate the respiratory tract and eyes.

Brooding Temperature: Heating is very much essential to provide right temperature in the brooder house.  Too high or too low temperature slows down growth and causes mortality. During the first week the temperature should be 95°F (35°C) which may be reduced by 5°F per week during each successive week till 70°F (21·10C). The brooder should be switched on for at least 24 hours before the chicks arrive. As a rule of thumb the temperature inside the brooder house should be approximately 20°F (-6·7°C) below the brooder temperature.

Animal Nutrition and Feeding: Meeting the requirements of livestock nutrition is extremely important to maintain acceptable performance of neonatal, growing, finishing and breeding animals. An optimal nutritional program should ensure adequate intakes of amino acids (essential and nonessential), carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins by animals through a supplementation program that corrects deficiencies in basal diets.22 amino acids are needed to form body protein, some of which can be synthesized by the bird (non-essential), whereas others cannot be made at all or in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs (essential). Essential amino acids must be supplied by the diet, and a sufficient amount of non-essential amino acids must also be supplied to prevent the conversion of essential amino acids into non-essential amino acid. These essential amino acids must therefore be fed in order to supply the building blocks needed in the synthesis of body proteins thereby supporting growth.

Some other Farm management practices include; Litter management, Water Sanitization, Animal health management, Veterinary medicines and biological, Environment and infrastructure, Animal and product handling, etc.

We at Vinayak Ingredients Pvt. Ltd. Aim at making the livestock production free from all the major hazards for safe and healthy production and consumption of the meat. We believe in “HERBOCORE” process and our aim is to manufacture safe, eco-sustainable and cost effective solutions for the benefits of the industry”. Our wide variety of products includes;

  • “KiFAY”-an Amino Acid Optimizer. It improves the availability of insulin receptors which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves their uptake from the blood. Thus, improved amino acid accretion from blood results in better protein turn over. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.
  • “HERBOFLOXIN”-Natural antibiotic growth promoter. It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria.
  • “MUCOFORT”-An Advance Mucin enhancer and respiratory tonic.
  • “ESSENTIOLITT”-It is an anti-vector solution. Controls and eradicates all stages of the insects and also ensures an unfavorable environment for them to prevent re-infestation.
  • “VINTOXO”- an excellent Toxin Binder which absorbs various mycotoxins on the surface with a CEC of 35 to 45 mEq per 100gms; it is able to absorb polar as well as non-polar mycotoxins and clears it out of the system.

How to increase SNF in Milk Production, Know about SNF – Solids Not Fat

SNF in Milk Production

Solids Not Fat (SNF) consists of everything except milk fat and water. That means total solids content in the entire residue left after complete evaporation of water from milk. This includes fat protein, lactose and mineral matter. Normally cow milk contains 8.5% SNF whereas buffalo milk contains 9.0% SNF

Crisis in Indian Dairy Industry & Effect on Milk Production

Milk Composition based on fat percentage and SNF percentage in milk yield has played a huge role in dairy product prices. Thus the recent crisis in Indian dairy industry has led Government of India to come up with strict norms to determine milk price rates based on fat and SNF percentages.

How to Improve SNF and Fat percentage in Milk Production

Due to high price of raw materials and lack of scientific farming knowledge, the cost of production of milk is increasing a day by day. Increasing milk fat and Solids Not Fat (SNF) level in milk will increase the selling for milk and thus maximise profit in dairy farming.

Proper feeding management in dairy cows and buffaloes is one of the vital factors that will yield better milk production with maximum Fat and SNF content. Knowledge on nutrient requirement and balanced nutrition will improve the productivity of animals.

Role of Cattle Feed supplement in managing milk yield and composition

All factors in milk composition work in synergy. Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd, with its extensive R&D has introduced SNF Milk Booster Cattle Feed Supplement – “Kifay Ruminant” a revolutionary product that is a perfect solution to proper feed management supplement for cattle to improve immunity, provide nutrition & minerals, increase fat and SNF percentage in milk yield.

Role of antioxidants in feed

Antioxidants play a major role in animal health, production and performance. This is due to the detrimental effects of radicals and toxic products of their metabolism on various metabolic processes. It is a well known fact that oxidative stress is involved in many degenerative disorders. The oxidative free radicals are therefore considered as pathobiochemicals mechanism for initiating or progression of various diseases. The prooxidant-antioxidant balance can be regulated by optimal nutrient uptake or providing herbal antibiotics. Thus, the essential step in maintaining the balance between the oxidative damage and antioxidative defense in the animal body would be to boost the antioxidant capacity by optimizing the dietary intake of antioxidants.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant. It is an important anti-stress agent. However, it can be easily oxidized. Sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is required in collagen biosynthesis and protein metabolism.

Vitamin E is the found in the biological membranes and lipid droplets. Vitamin E is absorbed in the small intestine with various efficacies depending on the diet composition, level of supplementation, age, sex and other individual characteristics of animals. It is the main chain-breaking antioxidant in biological systems.

Carotenoid is a natural pigment, responsible for yellow, orange and sometimes red pigmentations in plants, insects, birds and marine animals. They possess antioxidant activity. They have some health promoting properties, including immune system modulation. They are found in some plant-derived feed ingredients.

Manganese has an essential part of a range of enzymes taking part in antioxidant protection, bone growth and egg shell formation carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including processing of cholesterol.

Zinc is the second most abundant trace element trace element in mammals and they take part in antioxidant defense as an integral part of SOD, hormone secretion, keratin generation and epithelial tissue integrity immune function.

Iron has a vital role in antioxidant defense as an essential component of catalase, energy and protein metabolism, hence respiratory carrier, electron transport, oxidation-reduction reaction.