Antibiotics as Growth promoters –is a bane or a boon?

To answer this question it is important to develop an understanding about, what is the function of an antibiotic and how it does exactly promote growth in the animals. Also, how natural alternatives can effectively prove to be a better substitute.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that are used to inhibit growth of pathogenic microorganisms that often cause a variety of diseases in animals; hence they are used as therapeutic drugs.

However, there has been the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry, in order to improve meat production through increased feed conversion, growth rate promotion and disease prevention. The postulated mechanisms for growth promotion using antibiotics are as follows-

  1. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) inhibit endemic subclinical infection
  2. Reduce growth depressing metabolites like ammonia or bile degrading products produced by microbes
  3. Reduce microbial use of nutrients
  4. Enhance uptake and use of nutrients because the intestinal wall of AGP fed animal is thinner

However, prolonged use of antibiotics results into resistant microbial strains that pose the greater threat not only to the animals, but also humans at large when these strains enter the food chain. Hence the use of antibiotics should be highly restricted.

An effective solution to the addressed issue would be the use of natural derivatives that can exhibit similar growth promoting effects in the animal without posing a threat to the food chain.

Herbofloxin is a Natural Growth Promoter, composed of several natural origin derivatives, which work in conjunction to produce effects similar to AGP.    

These plant-derived compounds mainly exert their beneficial effects as follows:

  1. Disrupt cell membrane of microbes
  2. Interfere with virulence properties of the microbes by increasing the hydrophobicity, which influences surface characteristics of microbial cells and make them susceptible to immune system
  3. Stimulates growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut
  4. Act as immunostimulants
  5. Protects intestine from microbial attack
  6. Enhances the production and/or activity of the digestive enzymes
  7. Stimulate the proliferation and growth of absorptive cells (villus and crypt) in the gastrointestinal tract and increases nutrient absorption

Thus the cumulative result of these actions shows growth promoting effects on the gut of the animal that mimics the effect of AGP. Hence Natural Growth Promoters like Herbofloxin prove to be effective AGP Replacers.

Essentiality of good management practices in livestock production

Good management practices in livestock productionThe Livestock industry is an important component of the agricultural sector of any country producing meat, eggs, beef, pork and other quality products of animal origin.

This industry plays a vital role in market development and use of technology. Food safety is universally recognized as a public health priority. It requires a holistic approach, from production to consumption. Various aspects of animal production are at risk from biological, chemical and physical agents. These agents can enter food-producing animals and animal products through a wide variety of exposure points in the production, with high potential risks for the consumers. Therefore, it is essential that Good Management Practices are followed in the meat production to address these hazards. Following are the recommended Good Practices that should be followed on the farm.

Sanitation and hygiene:
All movable equipment like feeders, waterers and hovers should be removed from the house, cleaned and disinfected. The interior as well as the exterior of the house should be cleaned under pressure. The house should be disinfected with any commercial disinfectant solution at the recommended concentration.

Brooder Management-

Brooder house – It should be draft-free, rain-proof and protected against predators. Brooding pens should have windows for adequate ventilation. Availability of dust particles in the environment irritates the respiratory tract of the chicks. Also dust is one of the vehicles for disease transmission. The presence of more moisture in the environment causes ammonia fumes which irritate the respiratory tract and eyes.

Brooding Temperature – Heating is very much essential to provide the right temperature in the brooder house.  Too high or too low temperature slows down growth and causes mortality. During the first week the temperature should be 95°F (35°C) which may be reduced by 5°F per week during each successive week till 70°F (21·10C). The brooder should be switched on for at least 24 hours before the chicks arrive. As a rule of thumb the temperature inside the brooder house should be approximately 20°F (-6·7°C) below the brooder temperature.

Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Meeting the requirements of livestock nutrition is extremely important to maintain acceptable performance of neonatal, growing, finishing and breeding animals. An optimal nutritional program should ensure adequate intakes of amino acids (essential and nonessential), carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins by animals through a supplementation program that corrects deficiencies in basal diets. 22 amino acids are needed to form body protein, some of which can be synthesized by the bird (non-essential), whereas others cannot be made at all or in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs (essential). Essential amino acids must be supplied by the diet, and a sufficient amount of non-essential amino acids must also be supplied to prevent the conversion of essential amino acids into non-essential amino acid. These essential amino acids must therefore be fed in order to supply the building blocks needed in the synthesis of body proteins thereby supporting growth.

Some other Farm management practices include, Litter management, Water Sanitization, Animal health management, Veterinary medicines and biological, Environment and infrastructure, Animal and product handling, etc.

We at Vinayak Ingredients Pvt. Ltd. Aim at making the livestock production free from all the major hazards for safe and healthy production and consumption of the meat. We believe in “HERBOCORE” process and our aim is to manufacture safe, eco-sustainable and cost effective solutions for the benefits of the industry”.

Our wide variety of products include:

  1. KiFAY : An Amino Acid Optimizer. It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus, improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.
  2. HERBOFLOXIN : Natural antibiotic growth promoter. It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria.
  3. MUCOFORT : An Advance Mucin enhancer and respiratory tonic.
  4. ESSENTIOLITT : It is an anti-vector solution. Controls and eradicates all stages of the insects and also ensures an unfavorable environment for them to prevent re-infestation.
  5. VINTOXO : An excellent Toxin Binder which absorbs various mycotoxins on the surface with a CEC of 35 to 45 mEq per 100gms, it is able to absorb polar as well as non-polar mycotoxins and clears it out of the system.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Cause of unwanted problems – May be a Mycotoxin?

Cause of unwanted problems May be a Mycotoxin - Vinayak IngredientsMycotoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by molds and fungi, normally at a stationary phase. In order for fungi to produce these secondary metabolites, they must be in stress by some factor, such as nutritional restriction, drought or water excess. One fungal species may produce various mycotoxins, and several fungal species may produce the same mycotoxin. One such type of mycotoxins is Aflatoxins.

Aflatoxin influences all poultry species. Increasing amounts of aflatoxin causes mortality and low levels can be impeding if consistently fed. Aflatoxin pollution can diminish the bird’s capacity to withstand stress by inhibiting the immune system. This malfunction can diminish egg size and reduce egg production.

Mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium include: T¬2 toxin and it’s other relatives (trichothecenes), fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone. The identification of these mycotoxins inside poultry rations demonstrates that the ration or the ingredients in the ration have been subjected to fungal growth. Since various different mycotoxins, and in addition lessened nutritive value and acceptability of feeds, are produced by mold activity, the presence of deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, or zearalenone in poultry feeds is reason for concern. T2 toxin and trichothecenes can bring about mouth and intestinal lesions and in addition weaken the birds’ immune response, creating egg production declines, diminished feed consumption, weight loss, and altered feather patterns. However, in field circumstances the DON level is once in a while, connected with reduced feed consumption in layers and broiler breeders. This implies DON might be an indicator that T2 or other unknown Fusarium mycotoxins are available.

Prevention and Management of Mycotoxins 

  • Controlling mold development and mycotoxin production are vital to the feed manufacturer and livestock producer.
  • Grains and other dry feed, for example, hay ought to be put away at a dampness level 14 % or less to reduce fungal growth.
  • Aeration of grain bin is essential to decrease dampness relocation and to keep the feed stuffs dry.
  • To control fungal growth, places of dampness in the feed handling and storage equipment, for example, spills in feed storage tanks, augers, rooftops (either at poultry shelter or at the feed plant), and compartments in feed trucks must be eliminated.
  • When feed is made and conveyed to farms, it might interact with old feed that has held up in different zones of the feed storage and delivery systems. To prevent this problem, solidified, mold covered feed ought to be expelled from all feed assembling and handling equipment.

To make the poultry production safe and free from these mycotoxins; Vinayak Ingredients have come up with an excellent Toxin Binder which is completely of natural origin. A blend of clay that target and binds mycotoxins. VINTOXO  binds to primarily Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin  and  to Zearalenone,  Deoxynivalenol with a brand name as “VINTOXO”

MOA of Vintoxo : it absorbs various mycotoxins on the surface with a CEC of 35 to 45 mEq per 100gms; it is able to absorb polar as well as non-polar mycotoxins and clears it out of the system. The advantages of Vintoxo for complete protection are as follows;

  • Prevents mycotoxicosis
  • Improves weight gain
  • Increases gut transit time
  • Efficient gastric buffering agent

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Is It Necessary To Premix?

Premix in livestock feed - Vinayak IngredientsA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilize the coefficient of variation (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterized as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal gets no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change, contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) out to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices cover covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix : Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturized scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entertainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effective and proficiency by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement : This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blender. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before the addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilized as carriers. Be that as it may, the absorptive properties of ground grain and oilseed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed : Finished feed might be prepared as follows:

  • Include the grain portion of the diet to the blender
  • Add the dry supplement to the center of the blender (if possible, include supplementing the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released
  • Permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute
  • Add forage part of the diet
  • Add fat segment of the diet
  • Add molasses of the diet
  • Permit to blend for the time determined in the blender.

4) Adding Molasses : Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses are especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degrees Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing, Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel with the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of cross contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that effect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from suppliers.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of the methodology followed to guarantee the quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with an examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in the dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and The Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program — are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Role of Antioxidants in Feed

Role of Antioxidants in FeedAntioxidants in feed play a major role in animal health, production and performance. This is due to the detrimental effects of radicals and toxic products of their metabolism on various metabolic processes. It is a well known fact that oxidative stress is involved in many degenerative disorders. The oxidative free radicals are therefore considered as pathobiochemicals mechanism for initiating or progression of various diseases. The prooxidant-antioxidant balance can be regulated by optimal nutrient uptake or providing herbal antibiotics. Thus, the essential step in maintaining the balance between the oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in the animal body would be to boost the antioxidant capacity by optimising the dietary intake of antioxidants.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant. It is an important anti-stress agent. However, it can be easily oxidized. Sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is required in collagen biosynthesis and protein metabolism.

Vitamin E is the found in the biological membranes and lipid droplets. Vitamin E is absorbed in the small intestine with various efficacious depending on the diet composition, level of supplementation, age, sex and other individual characteristics of animals. It is the main chain-breaking antioxidant in biological systems.

Carotenoid is a natural pigment, responsible for yellow, orange and sometimes red pigmentation’s in plants, insects, birds and marine animals. They possess antioxidant activity. They have some health promoting properties, including immune system modulation. They are found in some plant-derived feed ingredients.

Manganese has an essential part of a range of enzymes taking part in antioxidant protection, bone growth and egg shell formation carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including processing of cholesterol.

Zinc is the second most abundant trace element trace element in mammals and they take part in antioxidant defence as an integral part of SOD, hormone secretion, keratin generation and epithelial tissue integrity immune function.

Iron has a vital role in antioxidant defence as an essential component of catalase, energy and protein metabolism, hence respiratory carrier, electron transport, oxidation-reduction reaction.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Antibiotic Alternative & Growth Promoter

Antibiotic Alternative Growth Promoter - Vinayak IngredientsAnimal diseases have a large impact on the economy of the livestock industry having total estimated global losses up to $2773 million annually. The disease may have a direct effect on performance through decreased production of milk, wool, or eggs, reduced fertility, delays in reaching maturation of reproductive system, decreased draught power or decreased weight of cull animals. These epidemics have the direct effect on farmers, consequently affecting agricultural sector and the national economy.
There is no doubt in the fact that certain dietary antibiotics have been playing a pivotal role in promoting good growth and health in animal production and feed conversion efficiency. However, the emergence of drug resistance among pathogens and public concerns of antibiotic residues in meat has led the European Commission (EC) to draw a critical decision to ultimately ban (January 1st, 2006), the marketing and application of antibiotics growth promoters (AGP) as feed additive (EC Regulation No. 1831/20031). This verdict was taken on the basis of the precautionary principle: ‘Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation’ (Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration, 19922).

Will the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed have the desired effect of reducing the overall level of antimicrobial use in animals? At the moment, this looks to be highly unlikely, as statistics continue to show a sudden rise in the use of AGP used for remedial purposes, even though there is a significant reduction in the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. In countries such as the USA the use of AGP in the poultry industry has been formally declined. This has led to increase in FCR and rise in the incidence of necrotic enteritis. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an acute infection caused by Clostridium species. This is characterized by excessive dehydration, severe intestinal tissue necrosis with an increase in death rate. Such sick birds that do not have access to appropriate treatment are likely to carry much heavier loads of bacteria at the time of processing. The escalating usage of treatment antibiotics is essential for the effective control of prevalent diseases such as coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in poultry, diarrhoea and inflammation of ileum in pigs, which have serious consequences and may badly affect production performance. From a veterinary point of view, withdrawing AGPs and in-feed anticoccidials may open the door to more enteric pathogen invasion.
In light of recent publicity surrounding the use of antibiotics by livestock and poultry industries, there are reports claiming to be alternatives to antibiotics which have the direct or indirect effect on microflora. Ideally, the alternatives to AGP should function in a same way as growth promoters without hindering its beneficial effects i.e.

(1) By reducing the amount of toxins and other metabolites produced by gram-positive bacteria.

(2) By increasing the intestinal wall permeability thereby improving absorption of nutrients.

(3) By blocking enzymes secreted by the pathogens thereby reducing the incidence and severity of sub-clinical infections.

Few of the most widely used alternatives for AGP along with their mode of action is briefly discussed:

Organic acids
Organic acids are widely distributed in animal tissues formed through catabolism of carbohydrates by microbial fermentation mainly in the caecum of the poultry intestine. The antibacterial nature of organic acid is mainly due to the low pH. The environmental pH change affects the dissociation of the acid which enhances the antimicrobial effect. The dissociated form of acid molecules freely diffuses through the semi-permeable membrane of microorganisms into the cell cytoplasm. Once in the cell, the acid molecules will disrupt the cell enzymes and nutrient transport mechanism.
To read more: Adams, C., 1999. Nutricines: Food Components in Health and Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, UK.

Probiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics are mixed cultures of live bacteria which improve the growth and characteristics of the indigenous microflora thereby benefiting the host’. The most well-known group of probiotics is lactic acid bacteria. Most of the probiotic strains produce specific metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide, secondary metabolites, and organic fatty acids. It also stimulates the immune system while interacting with the various receptor sites. On the other hand, Prebiotic are non-digestible feed ingredients with selective effects on the intestinal microflora. The mechanism of action of prebiotics as an alternative is dependent on the nature of the compound. They are feed ingredients that improve the activity of the gut microflora because of selective stimulation of the growth or metabolic activity of a limited number of intestinal micro-biota species, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus sp. Thus, they may have a similar mechanism of action as probiotics.

Herbs and essential oils
It is not an unknown fact that the herbs are used for beneficial therapeutic properties derived from their specific bio-active components. Most of the bioactive compounds of the plant are mostly secondary metabolites such as terpenoids (mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, etc.), phenolics (tannins), glycosides and alkaloids (present as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, lactones, etc).Essential oils are concentrated products with very strong aromatic fragrance produced by  these secondary metabolites. The mechanism of action of bio-active compounds on chemical constituents, biological factors and so on. Bio-active constituents derive from plants play important role in inhibiting the bacteria by inactivation of the protein, loss of function, neutralizing free radicals. The study of microbial activity of essential oils and other bio-active compounds on micro-organisms still remains area of future research.

CONCLUSION
Alternatives for AGPs are only of practical significance which improves animal performance as compared to AGPs.  Microflora stimulating and immunomodulatory compounds have potential and are used as feedstuff of feed additives. Acids, probiotics, prebiotic and herbs or essential oils are some examples of different naturally available products which are used as alternatives for AGPs. Within each product class, numerous other products are available in the market, of which some products are potentially good, for others the efficacy is not clear. Hence, this brings us to a point to describe the mechanism of actions of these useful vital compounds in a whole scientific manner that meets high grades for AGP alternatives for poultry.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter - Vinayak Ingredients

Herbofloxin is our answer to the long standing problem of antibiotic inclusions in feed and water of livestock. It is a unique micro emulsified formulation of phytoactive ingredients working as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal solutions for monogastric organisms.

Herbofloxin eliminates chemicals such as, water sanitizers, pH regulators, feed disinfectants and antibiotics from Livestock production. It improves gut immune barriers to resist colonization by pathological microflora. Herbofloxin is a complete solution for providing a barrier against infective agents and safeguards the entry of zoonotic organisms in the food chain. Herbofloxin reduces gut colonization by E.coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter and thus reducing the zoonosis of the same in the meat. It is a growth promoter resulting in healthy weight gain.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Antibiotics!!! Do we need them?

Antibiotics Do the livestock need them - Vinayak Ingredients

Ever wondered why antibiotics are good, bad or evil? Well, if you need an orientation session with the use and misuse of antibiotics, this is your space to read.

We all know definitions are important, so here we go. For a technically sound person the word ‘Antibiotics’ are agents which work against microorganisms. To put it into lay man’s perspective, these are substances/compounds which kill or slow down the growth of harmful bacteria, fungi or similar bugs that thrive on other living or dead things.  By the end of that “Layman term” explanation we would have understood that there isn’t a layman term for antibiotics and you don’t have to Einstein, or for that matter Sheldon your way (Courtesy big bang theory) to understand the science behind antibiotics.

To make things clearer let’s classify them into four practical categories (Oh, I would love to classify them into seven different ways so that you need to classify the classification types to complicate matters, but this is not what we intend to graduate in).

  • Chemically – Molecular structures (Beta lactams, Quinones, Aminoglycosides……)
  • Target microorganisms (Antibacterial, Anti-fungal, Antiprotozoal… )
  • Mechanism of action(Cell wall, enzyme, DNA….)
  • Evolutionary ( 1st generation, 2nd gen, New world )

Use of Antibiotics in the feed industry

Firstly, not all antibiotics is used as feed additives for animals and used in humans for treatment. The importance of this fact is rivaling many issues on banning of antibiotics as feed additives.  We will touch base with this statement again when we deal with the statement of antibiotic resistance. In the livestock industry antibiotics are used primarily for three reasons

  1. Treatment of bacterial, fungal and other infectious diseases.
  2. Prevention of infections, as a precaution in feed compulsion.
  3. Growth promotion, to improve final body weight of birds raised for meat.
Many antibiotics used in the treatment of livestock used for meat purpose are the same antibiotics used in humans.

These include a major share of quinolones. Although the figures below in the table reflect otherwise one should also consider that these antibiotics given under the treatment regime are given for a small 4 or 5 day schedule and often used in very small quantities. If proper withdrawal periods have used these antibiotics are excreted from the body of the animal well before slaughter. The table below shows us the volume compartmentalization of antibiotic use.

Use by volume Humans Animal
Pencilins 44 % 6 %
Cephalasporins 15% 1%
Sulfa 14% 3%
Quinolones 9% less than 1%
Macrolides 5% 4%
Tetracyclines 4% 41%
Ionophores 0% 30%

In the next blog we learn more about antibiotic resistance and how it impacts us

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd