How to reduce HPM – EHP a shrimp disease using Rehpairo

Reduce HPM - EHP a shrimp disease using Rehpairo

Shrimp aquaculture has been developing considerably and expanding rapidly with long term potential.

It is the most promising food production sector that provides excellent source of protein for human consumption. However increase in demand, results in the large scale expansion and intensive farming practices to fulfill the ever growing needs that lead to ecological and physiological stress. That hampers the production capacity of the farms and causes huge economical losses to the farmers. For instance, growth of infected Litopenaeus vannamei, is reported to be arrested at around 12 g, capping production at approximately 9 tonnes/ha as opposed to the nominal target of 12 tonnes/ha.

Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis (HMP) is caused by the Enterocytozoon hepatopanaei (EHP).

EHP is a spore forming, unicellular parasite that, when enters the ponds is highly difficult to eradicate. Certain spores of EHP in fecal pellets or dried cadavers have shown to be viable up to six months and retain infectivity for over a year under aqueous conditions.

As per the etiology of HMP, once the spores enter the gut of the shrimp they start infecting the hepatic cells via extending highly specialized polar tube. As the infection progresses there is an increase in the number of spores since they replicate within the host cells. The new spores thus formed then infect other healthy cells. It, ultimately results into deterioration in the health of the shrimp that leads to retarded growth and development.
Rehpairo is an amino acid optimizer for healthy hepatopancreas, which helps the cell for better uptake of nutrients supplied in the feed and promotes healthy recovery, faster growth and development.

Rehpairo also contains, phytoactive compounds that keep in check the infection caused by EHP within the gut lumen of the shrimp.

The phytoactive compounds exhibit their inhibitory action on EHP by interrupting the polar tube extension to the host cell and hence preventing the infection. Use of Rehpairo in aqua feeds has shown to reduce the severity of infection of EHP from 50% to 10% thereby demonstrating very good recovery. Use of Rehpairo was found to be effective in reversing the growth retardation and was apparent from the increase in weekly average body weight gain.

Comprehensively, Rehpairo exhibits a dual mode of action on the deadly disease, firstly by neutralizing the infection and further preventing the disease HPM caused by EHP.

Antibiotics as Growth promoters –is a bane or a boon?

To answer this question it is important to develop an understanding about, what is the function of an antibiotic and how it does exactly promote growth in the animals. Also, how natural alternatives can effectively prove to be a better substitute.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that are used to inhibit growth of pathogenic microorganisms that often cause a variety of diseases in animals; hence they are used as therapeutic drugs.

However, there has been the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry, in order to improve meat production through increased feed conversion, growth rate promotion and disease prevention. The postulated mechanisms for growth promotion using antibiotics are as follows-

  1. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) inhibit endemic subclinical infection
  2. Reduce growth depressing metabolites like ammonia or bile degrading products produced by microbes
  3. Reduce microbial use of nutrients
  4. Enhance uptake and use of nutrients because the intestinal wall of AGP fed animal is thinner

However, prolonged use of antibiotics results into resistant microbial strains that pose the greater threat not only to the animals, but also humans at large when these strains enter the food chain. Hence the use of antibiotics should be highly restricted.

An effective solution to the addressed issue would be the use of natural derivatives that can exhibit similar growth promoting effects in the animal without posing a threat to the food chain.

Herbofloxin is a Natural Growth Promoter, composed of several natural origin derivatives, which work in conjunction to produce effects similar to AGP.    

These plant-derived compounds mainly exert their beneficial effects as follows:

  1. Disrupt cell membrane of microbes
  2. Interfere with virulence properties of the microbes by increasing the hydrophobicity, which influences surface characteristics of microbial cells and make them susceptible to immune system
  3. Stimulates growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut
  4. Act as immunostimulants
  5. Protects intestine from microbial attack
  6. Enhances the production and/or activity of the digestive enzymes
  7. Stimulate the proliferation and growth of absorptive cells (villus and crypt) in the gastrointestinal tract and increases nutrient absorption

Thus the cumulative result of these actions shows growth promoting effects on the gut of the animal that mimics the effect of AGP. Hence Natural Growth Promoters like Herbofloxin prove to be effective AGP Replacers.

Improving Pellet can Improve Poultry & Aqua Performance

Improving Pellet can Improve Poultry & Aqua Performance - Vinayak IngredientsAnimal feed pelleting process :

Great quality pellets have a few advantages: diminished waste, less isolation in the feed, improved palatability and shorter eating periods. Likewise Poultry & Aqua performance and feed effectiveness can profit by pelleting the feed. In any case, it is not generally simple to make a decent quality pellet.

Pellet binders are products that are utilized to “tie”, “paste” or hold the different feed segments together in order that they will keep up pellet integrity during consequent operations after they are expelled from the pellet die.

There are many reasons used to legitimize the pelleting procedure.

These include :

  • Improved animal performance
  • Decreased feed wastage
  • Reduced specific feeding
  • Improved bulk density
  • Better material handling attributes
  • Destruction of injurious life forms
  • Customer desires
  • Feed dust/disease control
  • Conditioning temperature is a solid element for enhancing the nature of pellets involved essentially of grain, particularly corn/soy.

Fat is a strong lubricant, however, is unsafe to pellet quality. Amplifying steam addition and limiting fat added at the blender are two stages that can enhance quality at a generally minimal effort for every ton. Formulation changes that can be utilized to additionally enhance quality incorporate the utilization of a binder, surfactant or addition of wheat. Generation rate has little impact and ought to be expanded.

Combining results from few trials, it is conceivable to anticipate how the different components would influence the nature of corn/soy pellets in respect to each other. Equipment problems in some cases confine the plant’s capacity to reliably keep up a high molding temperature. Pellet binders can enhance pellet quality and are not dependent on temperature for initiation; they can adequately diminish fines amid issue circumstances.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Cause of unwanted problems – May be a Mycotoxin?

Cause of unwanted problems May be a Mycotoxin - Vinayak IngredientsMycotoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by molds and fungi, normally at a stationary phase. In order for fungi to produce these secondary metabolites, they must be in stress by some factor, such as nutritional restriction, drought or water excess. One fungal species may produce various mycotoxins, and several fungal species may produce the same mycotoxin. One such type of mycotoxins is Aflatoxins.

Aflatoxin influences all poultry species. Increasing amounts of aflatoxin causes mortality and low levels can be impeding if consistently fed. Aflatoxin pollution can diminish the bird’s capacity to withstand stress by inhibiting the immune system. This malfunction can diminish egg size and reduce egg production.

Mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium include: T¬2 toxin and it’s other relatives (trichothecenes), fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone. The identification of these mycotoxins inside poultry rations demonstrates that the ration or the ingredients in the ration have been subjected to fungal growth. Since various different mycotoxins, and in addition lessened nutritive value and acceptability of feeds, are produced by mold activity, the presence of deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, or zearalenone in poultry feeds is reason for concern. T2 toxin and trichothecenes can bring about mouth and intestinal lesions and in addition weaken the birds’ immune response, creating egg production declines, diminished feed consumption, weight loss, and altered feather patterns. However, in field circumstances the DON level is once in a while, connected with reduced feed consumption in layers and broiler breeders. This implies DON might be an indicator that T2 or other unknown Fusarium mycotoxins are available.

Prevention and Management of Mycotoxins 

  • Controlling mold development and mycotoxin production are vital to the feed manufacturer and livestock producer.
  • Grains and other dry feed, for example, hay ought to be put away at a dampness level 14 % or less to reduce fungal growth.
  • Aeration of grain bin is essential to decrease dampness relocation and to keep the feed stuffs dry.
  • To control fungal growth, places of dampness in the feed handling and storage equipment, for example, spills in feed storage tanks, augers, rooftops (either at poultry shelter or at the feed plant), and compartments in feed trucks must be eliminated.
  • When feed is made and conveyed to farms, it might interact with old feed that has held up in different zones of the feed storage and delivery systems. To prevent this problem, solidified, mold covered feed ought to be expelled from all feed assembling and handling equipment.

To make the poultry production safe and free from these mycotoxins; Vinayak Ingredients have come up with an excellent Toxin Binder which is completely of natural origin. A blend of clay that target and binds mycotoxins. VINTOXO  binds to primarily Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin  and  to Zearalenone,  Deoxynivalenol with a brand name as “VINTOXO”

MOA of Vintoxo : it absorbs various mycotoxins on the surface with a CEC of 35 to 45 mEq per 100gms; it is able to absorb polar as well as non-polar mycotoxins and clears it out of the system. The advantages of Vintoxo for complete protection are as follows;

  • Prevents mycotoxicosis
  • Improves weight gain
  • Increases gut transit time
  • Efficient gastric buffering agent

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Is It Necessary To Premix?

Premix in livestock feed - Vinayak IngredientsA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilize the coefficient of variation (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterized as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal gets no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change, contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) out to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices cover covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix : Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturized scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entertainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effective and proficiency by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement : This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blender. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before the addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilized as carriers. Be that as it may, the absorptive properties of ground grain and oilseed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed : Finished feed might be prepared as follows:

  • Include the grain portion of the diet to the blender
  • Add the dry supplement to the center of the blender (if possible, include supplementing the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released
  • Permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute
  • Add forage part of the diet
  • Add fat segment of the diet
  • Add molasses of the diet
  • Permit to blend for the time determined in the blender.

4) Adding Molasses : Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses are especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degrees Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing, Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel with the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of cross contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that effect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from suppliers.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of the methodology followed to guarantee the quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with an examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in the dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and The Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program — are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements, Aqua Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd