COVID-19, a grave shadow over poultry and feed market

COVID-19, a grave shadow over poultry and feed market

On one side the corona virus (COVID-19) outbreak has already slumped down the global economy, livestock and poultry industry has been suffering huge losses yet increasing over time. Amongst all, the Indian poultry market, which is valued over 90,000 crores has plummeted the most, resulting in more than 30% fall in the sector; which is also reported to affect 4 million employs of the country directly or indirectly.

The outlet prices have come down to 35-55Rs per kg live weight depending on the region, while 80-85Rs is cost of production per kg. As it was not enough, wholesalers saw decline in meat consumers by over 50%. At the same time there is hardly any variation in its products prices, benefiting traders in a way. Misinformation aired on the social media platforms can be blamed for the rumors for the unsupported claims of any relation of poultry and meat products with COVID-19. As per the reports, the impact is even worse in the western countries.

Already enduring livestock industry with the competitive raw ingredients prices like Soyabean and Maize in their compound feed, COVID-19 has also blown away steady growth of the industry. This will probably take long recovery period to reconcile the industry losses.

Again, to make up the bridge of pork industry affected by ASF(African swine fever), china had shown 12% growth in poultry sector last year, however after being the epicenter of novel COVID-19, the meat market is substantially disrupted. Insecurity of the supply chain has led to shut down the main feed manufacturers and slaughterhouses across the globe.

Not only the Asian countries, but also the whole world is experiencing the consequences of Corona Virus in livestock and feed industries along with fall in all markets at the start of new year. Keeping the belief on our rigorous safety practices and advanced medicine, hopefully we will soon get a breakthrough to tackle down the monstrous virus, which has already spread over more than 70 countries and costs thousands of lives and counting.

Vinayak industries private limited is stepping up with animal and feed industries to provide the best, pivotal and innovative products to heal economy, nurture and benefit the farmers while assuring safety and satisfaction to our consumers. Kindly check out our website for more content and our diverse range of scientifically studied products for multiple species.

How to reduce HPM – EHP a shrimp disease using Rehpairo

Shrimp aquaculture has been developing considerably and expanding rapidly with long term potential. It is the most promising food production sector that provides excellent sources of protein for human consumption. However increase in demand, results in large scale expansion and intensive farming practices to fulfill the ever-growing needs that lead to ecological and physiological stress. That hampers the production capacity of the farms and causes huge economical losses to the farmers. For instance, the growth of infected Litopenaeus vannamei, is reported to be arrested at around 12 g, capping production at approximately 9 tonnes/ha as opposed to the nominal target of 12 tonnes/ha.

Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis (HMP) is caused by the Enterocytozoon hepatopanaei (EHP). EHP is a spore-forming, a unicellular parasite that, when enters the ponds is highly difficult to eradicate. Certain spores of EHP in fecal pellets or dried cadavers have shown to be viable up to six months and retain infectivity for over a year under aqueous conditions.

As per the etiology of HMP, once the spores enter the gut of the shrimp they start infecting the hepatic cells via extending a highly specialized polar tube. As the infection progresses there is an increase in the number of spores since they replicate within the host cells. The new spores thus formed then infect other healthy cells. It, ultimately results into deterioration in the health of the shrimp that leads to retarded growth and development.                  

Rehpairo is an amino acid optimizer for healthy hepatopancreas, which helps the cell for better uptake of nutrients supplied in the feed and promotes healthy recovery, faster growth and development. Rehpairo also contains, phytoactive compounds that keep in check the infection caused by EHP within the gut lumen of the shrimp. The phytoactive compounds exhibit their inhibitory action on EHP by interrupting the polar tube extension to the host cell and hence preventing the infection. Use of Rehpairo in aqua feeds has shown to reduce the severity of infection of EHP from 50% to 10% thereby demonstrating very good recovery. Use of Rehpairo was found to be effective in reversing the growth retardation and was apparent from the increase in weekly average body weight gain.

Comprehensively, Rehpairo exhibits a dual mode of action on the deadly disease, firstly by neutralizing the infection and further preventing the disease HPM caused by EHP.

Antibiotics as Growth promoters –is a bane or a boon?

To answer this question it is important to develop understanding about, what is the function of an antibiotic and how it does exactly promote growth in the animals. Also, how natural alternatives can effectively prove to be better substitute.

Antibiotics are antimicrobial drugs that are used to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms that often cause variety of diseases in animals; hence they are used as therapeutic drugs.

However, there has been the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry, in order to improve meat production through increased feed conversion, growth rate promotion and disease prevention. The postulated mechanisms for growth promotion using antibiotics are as follows-

  1. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) inhibit endemic subclinical infection
  2. Reduce growth depressing metabolites like ammonia or bile degrading products produced by microbes
  3. Reduce microbial use of nutrients
  4. Enhance uptake and use of nutrients because intestinal wall of AGP fed animal is thinner

However, prolonged use of antibiotics results into resistant microbial strains that pose a greater threat not only to the animals but also humans at large when these strains enter the food chain. Hence the use of antibiotics should be highly restricted.

An effective solution to the addressed issue would be use of natural derivatives that can exhibit similar growth promoting effects in the animal without posing a threat to the food chain.

Herbofloxin is a Natural Growth Promoter, composed of several natural origin derivatives which work in conjunction to produce effects similar to AGP.    

These plant-derived compounds mainly exert their beneficial effects as follows:

  1. Disrupt cell membrane of microbes
  2. Interfere with virulence properties of the microbes by increasing the hydrophobicity, which influences surface characteristics of microbial cells and make them susceptible to immune system
  3. Stimulates growth and proliferation of beneficial bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut
  4. Act as immunostimulants
  5. Protects intestine from microbial attack
  6. Enhances the production and/or activity of the digestive enzymes
  7. Stimulate the proliferation and growth of absorptive cells (villus and crypt) in the gastrointestinal tract and increases nutrient absorption

Thus the cumulative result of these actions show growth promoting effects on the gut of the animal that mimics the effect of AGP. Hence Natural Growth Promoters like Herbofloxin prove to be effective AGP replacers.

How to improve milk production in cattle using natural supplements

A high yielding animal requires a customized diet formulated after understanding the highly integrated metabolic pathways that ensures better qualitative and quantitative yield.

Milk composition is economically important to milk producers and processors and nutritionally important to consumers. Hence, there has been stringency in the assessment and evaluation of milk, which includes determining parameters like SNF (Solid Not Fat) that has become the price-determining factor in the dairy industry. Thus, increase in SNF is highly desirable for the farmers. This need can be satisfied by a simple yet very effective approach that is accurate feed management. Balanced nutrition means supplying adequate amounts of macronutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients like vitamins and minerals.

Kifay is a product that provides wholesome nutrition to the animal. It is designed to improve parameters like milk yield, SNF as well as provide the animal immunity against various opportunistic infections. It has shown results on dung score and body score of the animal improving them substantially. The active ingredients of the product include Piperin, Flavonoids, Mannans extracted from natural sources.

Given below are brief role of these ingredients.

Piperine:

Enhancing the bioavailability of nutritional compound by two ways,

a) by increased absorption from the gut and

b) by slowdown of biotransformation, inactivation or elimination from the system.

Flavonoids:

They have anti-oxidative properties. They modify rumen microbial activity and create desirable fermentation conditions such as pH regulation, propionate proportion and protein degradation. Once absorbed in mammary glands after circulation in blood, they significantly alter the nutritional composition of milk.

Polyphenols:

They protect proteins from degradation and improve the efficiency of conversion of plant proteins to animal proteins (milk). By enhancing this conversion of dietary proteins, they also increase the delivery of amino acids for absorption in the small intestine, thereby improving the milk production and growth.

Mannans:

They serve as a growing medium for the beneficial flora found in the gut. They help in establishing a balance microflora in the intestine (eubiosis), They are also indirectly responsible for suppression of unwanted microbes. 

Thus all these actions work in synergy that takes care of diverse parameters which in turn have a positive influence on the animal.

Therefore, for those in quest for a product which not only provides their animal nutrition but also converts it into a better milk yield, Kifay is a reliable solution for the comprehensive growth of the animal which ultimately results into high yield and also ensures overall good health and development.

Significance of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) in Lactating Cow

Volatile fatty acids in lactating cow

Bacterial fermentation of organic matter like carbohydrate in the rumen produces Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) that is readily absorbed and serves as a source of energy to the ruminant. VFA can have a major effect on the qualitative as well as quantitative production by the ruminant.

It is well-established that diets high in soluble carbohydrates (starch and sugar) can lead to over-production of VFA, particularly propionate and lactate, and consecutively lead to a drop in rumen pH and cause sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) or acute acidosis. Cellulolytic bacteria operate within a narrow pH range and can only survive for a relatively short time below this range before their growth and activity are compromised. Thus, fiber digestion is inhibited if rumen pH remains low for long periods.

Vinyeast-P enables to fine tune the rumen environment in such a way that there is a striking balance between productivity and acidosis. Vinyeast-P is composed of Live Yeast Culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LYC) and Propioni bacteria. Their mode of action differs on the individual front although when administered as a combination they produce a better stimulating effect on the rumen synergistically.      LYC maintains the anaerobic condition of the rumen, itself being an oxygen scavenging organism, as well as stimulates the growth of other microbial anaerobes. It also enhances fiber digestion and thus improves the utilization of starch supplied in the diet. Lactic acid is prone to getting accumulated in the rumen as its absorption is much slower than propionic acid. Propionibacterium being a lactic acid utilizing bacteria helps to convert of the accumulated lactic acid to propionic acid, restoring the pH of the rumen back to normal. Thus keeps in check the detrimental effects of acidosis. Propionic acid is used by the ruminants to make blood glucose, milk protein and milk sugar lactose, thus conferring the rumen wholesome nutrition. Hence, it can be concluded that tailored production VFA is the key that assures a better yielding ruminant.

A holistic approach to bovine rumen health

The rumen of bovine can also be called “the seat of production” which governs the extent of production by the animal. Rumen is a dynamic, continuous fermentation compartment that houses a variety of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi. These microorganisms have a complex series of action on the feed consumed by the ruminant. The rumen microbes ferment fiber, starch, sugar, and protein to form volatile fatty acids that serves as a readily available source of energy to the animal and microbial protein that helps the microorganisms to reproduce rapidly in the rumen. However as the rumen serves as a fermentation chamber there are several parameters that are required to be in a specified range in order for its smooth functioning.

First and foremost the rumen is anaerobic. This means that there is little or no oxygen in it. Secondly the rumen temperature is one degree above body temperature at 39°C and pH ranges between 5.7 and 7.3. Any disruption to the delicate balance of the rumen environment will result in poor growth of the microbes, poor digestion, and ultimately, lower milk production. For instance if there occurs any slight change in the oxygen concentrations of the rumen the conditions would turn aerobic where the anaerobic microbiota does not function efficiently.

Vinyeast is a product consisting of Live Yeast Culture (LYC) derived from Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Yeast is an oxygen scavenging organism that primarily helps to maintain the balance of anaerobic nature of the rumen. Yet another benefit of using a Vinyeast is that, it is a fiber digesting organism that produces Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) like acetate, propionate and butyrate that are absorbed by the ruminant as it serves as a readily available source of energy thus beneficial to the animal. Vinyeast also releases a number of secondary metabolites like vitamins- Biotin, Thiamine and Folic Acid which are essentially used by the microbiota for rapid growth which in turn converts into high fermentation, high VFA, high energy and thus high production by the animal, hence ensuring holistic health of the rumen.  Thus fulfills the aforementioned phrase “seat of production” aptly.

How to increase Performance and Production in Poultry

As poultry farming has already proven to be a profitable business with minimum investment. A combination of quality nutrition, veterinary guidance and biosecurity in farm and bird management will help to ensure birds have the best possible chance to perform at their maximum potential.

The term FLAWS actually serves as a prompt for a detailed approach for the good management practices, not only during brooding stage but throughout the life of the flock. This reminds for the routine check for basic parameters such as feed, light, litter, air, water, bio security, sanitation, space and staff.

Pre-placement preparation

Advance preparation is needed before the new flock arrives to prevent losses during brooding and the rest of grow out.

Brooding management

Brooding is a period immediately after the hatch when special care and attention is given to chicks to support their health and survival. Since recently hatched chick has not yet developed their body mechanism to regulate its body temperature hence, it cannot maintain its body temperature properly for the first few weeks. Therefore the room temperature need to be adjust the temperature to 35°C (95F) at the edge of the brooder 2 inches (5cm) above the litter during the initial few weeks. Lower the temperature by 2.85°C (5F) each week until it reaches 70°F. Thus temperature of 21°C appears to be ideal during growing period. 

Litter management

The litter in a poultry house acts as bedding for the birds. Litter condition and quality have an impact on poultry health and profitability.

Proper management of wet litter is important for intestinal health of birds. Without proper management, wet litter can serve as a potent source for hazardous pathogens and may also act as a start point for stress and infection that develops and leads to disease.

Also, wet litter problems increase, ammonia levels in the farm rise that are potentially detrimental to bird health.

Sometimes, when the litter is too dry and dusty becomes an indicator that the birds may not be drinking enough. The dry feces in the powder form may lead to respiratory problems.

Water management

Water is the most crucial nutrient for poultry. Drinking water accounts for 70–80 percent of the bird’s daily physiological needs. Poultry will generally consume more water than feed. An abundance of clean water will reduce challenges and maximize performance.

Feed management

Proper balanced feed formulated on the basis of age, sex and physiological need helps in making the poultry full grown and disease free. Good feed quality that avoids contaminants such as mycotoxins is important to ensure performance.

Stocking density

Overcrowding during housing conditions generates high stress in poultry.  This has a negative impact on performance and production. Lowering stocking density throughout the overall production of the poultry may help to reduce stress.

Environmental management

General environmental management of the farm includes many components. Coccidiosis is one of the diseases of consideration based on the living condition of poultry.

As the poultry ingest eggs of parasite from contaminated litter, and these pass into the intestinal tract, They targets the intestinal cells. Several cycles of replication occur which lead to the formation of new oocysts which are shed in the feces. When the suitable environmental conditions like temperature and humidity prevails, the oocysts sporulate and become infective. The entire cycle takes 4 to 6 days. Thus massive immense replication during intracellular phase makes the parasite a serious problem in farm management.

Mortality checks

Cull diseased birds as early as possible.

Look into your Poultry Feed…

As the Monsoon has arrived, high humidity in an environment and feed exposed to such environment can easily retain moisture. This results in the degradation of feed nutritive value.

This high moisture provides ambient conditions to grow mould and fungi. Elevating the risk of various toxins in the feed. Since these toxins are secondary metabolites of fungus and moulds resulting in degrading the feed quality and ultimately reflecting an adverse effect on poultry performance and production.

Feed contaminated with fungus such as Aspergillus flavus results into mycotoxins commonly known as aflatoxins (AF), B1, B2, G1 and G2 etc.  Affecting the birds as:-

1. Reduction of feed intake

2. Poor nutrient absorption and altered nutrient metabolism

3. Frequent disease outbreak in flocks

4. Gastrointestinal and hepatic problems   

5. Poor FCR and egg production and high mortality

So to avoid such conditions consequently, necessary prevention and well effective methods should be taken to detoxify toxins-containing feedstuffs. Therefore, one should select a toxin binder that should complete bind the different toxins and expelling the toxin from the system completely. It should avoid minerals and vitamins to be cheated in gut. Along with this, it should be hepato protectively and rejuvenating the lost liver cells due to toxin damage.

Developing a toxin binder which is natural in origin will help in optimizing the nutrient absorption and biotransformation of various toxins from the system. Natural ingredients like bioactive charcoal and clay help to bind the toxins from the system. Organic acids help in maintaining the normal gut pH and act as mould inhibitor. Prebiotics helps to maintain beneficial gut microflora in the birds. Herbal extracts provide hepatoprotective and hepato stimulant effect and improve the feed digestion for better performance and production of the bird.

Thus in nutshell, a toxin binder should prevent the formation and bio-activation of mycotoxins into toxic metabolites, prevent systemic deleterious effects of absorbed mycotoxins, improve liver function, enhance the utilization of nutrients, FCR and production performance in poultry.

Phytoremedie for Coccidiosis

Coccidiosis … that single word strikes fear in every poultry farmer mind- and it should be, as coccidiosis is one of the heights mortality causing pathogen for the poultry industry.
Looking in the broad sense, coccidiosis is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the microscopic parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. Most often spread by bringing infected hens into the flock, or by wild birds, it is then picked up chickens through contact with the infected feces or through drinking contaminated water. It generally manifests itself as diarrhea, bloody droppings (red poop), ruffled feathers, poor appetite and lethargy and results in an inability to absorb nutrients in food. The disease has a high mortality rate in chicks and death usually occurs within aweek of first seeing symptoms. Even if a bird survives, permanent intestinal tissue damage often occurs. As immune system is centered in the intestine of poultry, survivors could have a compromised immune system for life.
Anticoccidial chemicals, coccidiocides and coccidiostats being generally used as a mainstream strategy to control avian coccidiosis but these strategies have very high maintenance cost and show residual drug resistance in meat. Therefore all these conditions encouraged the development of alternative natural control strategies.Phytoremidies, i.e. use of medical local herbs like Allium sativum, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia etc, have shown Immunomodulator, coccidiostate and anti-inflammatory in actions. These herbs help in eliminate negative factors of microbial infections. They interact with the life cycle of Eimeri and inhibit speculation of cociddia effectively. Active phytochemicals from these herbs have therapeutic effect and act as a immunomodulatory agents which boost antimicrobial immune responses to uphold homeostasis of poultry health. These, can be utilized as an alternative method to reinforce immune response against multiple avian coccidiosis species.
The phytoconstituents are non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) in nature. They act as a therapeutic agent by generating the pharmacological response to subside the inflammation in the gut cause due to intracellular coccidial infiltration.
We focus on the recent advances in the understanding of the potential of these herbs and their compounds to prevent and treat avian coccidiosis. However, the actions, mechanisms and therapeutic potential of these herbal ingredients against avian coccidiosis are the subjects to study more…

Problems of Indian Dairy Industry

The world’s largest milk producer and consumer of dairy products are in India, consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. Milk products are a major source of cheap animal protein and nutritious food to millions of people in world. Small scale dairy farming is the main source of income for small and marginal farmers.

The matter of consideration is that most of our livestock are “underfed” and hence suffer from “Negative Energy Balance” which hampers the milk quality and quantity. The potential productivity of our livestock is constantly decreasing due to negative protein balance, negative water balance, negative vitamin balance and Negative mineral balance. These are some simple reasons as to why milk productivity per animal in India is low.  

The huge demand of milk production is primarily the fallout of dairy farming policy reflected in Operation Flood. Following the success of dairy farming policy by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) new and updated strategies has been implanted. Improvement in standard quality parameters for laboratory analysis of milk by dairy and food Industry has been set (protein, fat, carbohydrate, total solids, sugar, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals) for milk.

To overcome the poor quality issue in the dairy sector, feed supplement that can optimize the protein demand by improving the SNF % in milk need to be focused. The maximum genetic potential capacity of animals can be explored at the cellular level, pulling more amino acids in protein synthesis. Accelerating the body translates process ultimately leading to increased protein content in milk.

Thus, in the nut shell higher the SNF, better the quality of milk criteria can be set for judging the milk quality.

In high yielding animals, during peak lactation period there is a constant demand for food that is a rich source of amino acid which support the ongoing anabolic process in the body. It should prevent animals from negative energy balance, maintaining healthy immunity status, improve protein and enhance proper body development.