Ventilation Management in Poultry Houses

Ventilation Management in Poultry Houses - Vinayak IngredientsVentilation Systems
Depending on different ventilation requirements, ventilation systems are generally divided into two types:
1) Natural Air Flow System
2) Mechanical Air Movement (Fans)

Sometimes it is also combined to provide comfort to the chickens.

• Natural Air Flow System:
Ventilated shelters must be exposed to the wind, so place the building on a high site rather than in a low place at least 100 feet away from the side where the prevailing wind enters the building.

i) Winter Ventilation: Systems for cold weather are much more complicated than in warm weather because houses must be closed tightly for comfort and to conserve energy. Tight enclosures trap the gases, odors, humidity, etc. That must be dealt with continuously for the health of the birds.
ii) Summer Ventilation: A natural air system is used for warm weather conditions in houses with side curtains. This system uses temperature differences and natural air movement to remove excess heat and moisture, and to supply oxygen.

• Mechanical Ventilation System:
Mechanical air movement is required to properly ventilate a house in all extreme climatic conditions. They can be divided into two distinct types:

(1) Negative pressure

And

(2) Positive pressure

i) Negative (Exhaust) System: In the negative pressure system, fans are arranged to expel air from the building.

ii) Positive Pressure System: A positive pressure system uses fans to push air into the building and create a positive pressure.

The Significance of Ventilation in Poultry Management

The Significance of Ventilation in Poultry ManagementVentilation is one of the most widely recognized difficulties confronting broiler growers in both routine and closed-environment lodging. Ventilation systems are intended to naturally deal with this environment for poultry, particularly amid the brooding period. Whether you utilize a passage or the cross – ventilation system or a blend of both, ventilation is important to make the ideal environment that birds need to develop and create during every phase of life.

A key prerequisite of any base ventilation system is to take care of the oxygen demand of the cutting edge poultry bird and to guarantee great conveyance of outside air all through the poultry house. Oxygen is required for both the generation of warm body and digestion system of supplements fundamental for development. In the first week, the carbon dioxide is principally delivered by the ignition of LPG and from the chicks themselves. A chick’s respiratory system is a close full limit at a comfortable temperature. As the temperature drops in the environment, the chick must devour extensively more elevated amounts of oxygen to stay agreeable. Ventilation systems evacuate carbon dioxide and supply chicks with the oxygen they have to create a healthy cardiovascular system and to anticipate issues, for example, ascites, which can occur if demand for oxygen increases by just five percent.

Today’s present day broiler will consumes almost twice as much water in 28 days than they did two-and-a- half decades ago. Around 75 percent of the water consumed daily is discharged as water vapour from the respiratory system or precipitated alongside the droppings as dampness in the poultry litter. Chicks are not thermo-competent until 14 days of age and along these lines depend on supplementary warmth to keep them warm. During the initial seven days, chicks will more than fourfold their body weight. This is the main chance to accomplish such development in a single week. Keeping chicks warm and guaranteeing sufficient supplementary food, access to crisp water and great least ventilation is essential variables for deciding a herd’s general execution.

The Key Decision of Choosing Ventilation in Poultry Farm

Ventilation in Poultry Farm - Vinayak IngredientsIn hot summer climates shed infrastructure becomes important in guaranteeing ideal airflow for the cooling and the solace of the birds. However, when outlining an advanced broiler house the needs are very frequently determined by the requirement for quick returns. The poultry farmer empowers feed utilization from the minute the chicks land on the farm, with the most critical initial seven days. The other most difficult period, particularly in summer, is following 25 days when birds are completely feathered and hot conditions will challenge feed consumption.

The greatest challenge for houses longer than 120 meters is keeping up a satisfactory temperature get from the front to the back of the house. The level of birds comfort at last drives day by day encourage the utilization and even temperature dissemination will guarantee uniform food admission and uniform processing weights.

The amount that the air in a house warms up depends fundamentally on three components:

  1. Metabolic heat produced by the ovens;
  2. How rapidly the air in the house is exchanged; and
  3. Thermal properties of the house.

The transition ventilation framework assumes a basic part in temperature administration during brooding at day 21. It guarantees productive air exchange and temperature administration without making excessive air movement at chick level. Until the birds develop completely, they are exceptionally sensitive to air movement, which impacts feed consumption. The faster the air exchange rate, the cooler a house will be. However, a decent air exchange capacity alone won’t ensure bird comfort. Air is required to expel sensible heat created by the broilers. Most houses are outfitted with an evaporation cooling framework, intended to keep the approaching air temperature below 29°C. The Dropping temperature with an evaporating cooling system expands humidity in the house, diminishing the birds’ ability to discharge heat. By far the most critical contributor to birds comfort is air speed.

Future key design choices will rotate around accomplishing the real potential at most reduced working expenses. Later for power expenses will be the best patron to general operational expenses. One’s decision of passage fan will by far be the most vital choice.

5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry Production

5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry Production - Vinayak IngredientsBio-security practices and farm hygiene are the most important measures in order to prevent the risk of disease in poultry production. So here are the quick 5 main ways that farmers should keep in mind while working on a poultry farm.

  1. It is an obvious fact that the healthy, unstressed birds have active metabolism and effective immunity against disease. Thus, feeding birds with a nutritionally balanced diet, maintain a comfortable living environment and minimizing fear and anxiety in the birds will help the birds to survive.
  2. Another way of eliminating the disease is the vaccination aid in preventing pathogens, especially viruses by immunizing the bird in such a way that it enhances the immune response when the bird is subsequently exposed to it.
  3. Poultry sanitation is the crucial step which the flock owner might normally overlook. Disinfectants are normally applied only after the equipment and the whole farm have been thoroughly cleaned. It is suggested to clean manure/used litter from the sheds and removed from the site on the same day. From the litter to be disposed of on site, the land disposal areas and sensitive areas such as farm must be separated to avoid cross contamination. Disinfectants are generally applied by sprays, aerosols and fumigation. A pest control program must be introduced to get rid of rodents and other pests.
  4. Litter amendment system is one such bio-security system that can act as an ammonia binder which helps in improving the exposure of ammonia to the birds and reduces its release into the environment. Litter amendment systems also having disinfectant properties may be used as bio-security enhancers in the poultry house. This also decreases the energy intake by lowering the ventilation needed during winter season.
  5. The farmer/workers should wear an apron and boots on the farm to avoid cross contamination. Hands must wash thoroughly with soap and clean water. The number of visitors must be reduced to the farmhouse or get into close contact with birds.

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultry?

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultryRespiratory physiology of poultry is unique. Unlike human respiratory anatomy the avian lungs do not expand or contract on breathing. The direction of the flow of gases is unidirectional in the lungs, making it more efficient in gas exchange.  The air sacs associated with the poultry respiration form a very important component of air storage during inhalation or exhalation.  The air sacs also regulate body temperature by diverting the air flow to pneumatic bones for effective heat exchange.

All etiologies for respiratory disease in poultry have an aerosol mediated entry point. The contact of these agents with the capillary system associated with the lungs is brief as they are diverted to the air sac for temporary storage. Air sacculitis forms a major finding for respiratory related mortalities on post mortem examinations. Keeping these facts in mind, we can list factors affecting respiratory disease as;

Environmental stress affecting breathing of the birds

a) Heat/cold stress

b) Handling stress

Immunization failures

a) Vaccine component failure

b) Immunodeficiency

Inflammatory agents affecting respiratory system

a) Microbial etiology in bio-aerosols

b) Irritant gases and particulates

Nutritional deficiencies

a) Hypovitaminosis (A & B 12)

b) Amino acid deficiencies

Six Important Measures for Poultry Farming

Six Important Measures for Poultry FarmingOver past few decades the poultry industry has shown tremendous growth to meet the increasing demand in supply of meat and eggs. However, poultry farming is associated with a variety of toxic compounds such as ammonia, pesticides, pathogens and other airborne emissions. So, here are the six measures to keep in mind when planning for poultry farming.

1. Diet

Chickens are omnivores. Therefore, they should typically be fed a prepared feed that is balanced for all nutrients. However, feed consumption may increase in the winter, and decrease in the heat of the summer. An important point of poultry diet is administering access to clean and fresh water. This is especially true in the summer as they cool themselves by panting.

2. Housing

A quality pen is important to poultry farming. Chickens are descended from jungle birds, which mean they like to be up high, so a place for them to roost is important. Sheds must provide protection from the weather and predators. Their main predators are rats, owls, hawks, and cats. An enclosed space for them to stay at night is essential to their protection. It should have a heat lamp for the winter months as well as ventilation for fresh air.

3. Daily care

Chickens need to be fed and water, and changed daily. The pen must be cleaned out weekly to maintain sanitation and control odour.

4. Bird Health

Healthy birds show peculiar signs such as they are alert and active with bright eyes, and they will be moving around. The poultry droppings show firm and grayish brown coloration. If the chickens aren’t normal, start taking correct measures to cure the disease.

5. Sanitation

An important element to bird health is sanitation. The shed and outdoor area must be cleaned weekly or as needed to control manure and odour build up. The waterers and feeders should be regularly disinfected and cleaned.

6. Poultry litter management

Poultry litter is made up of waste feed, digesta, intestinal flora and mineral by-products from metabolic processes and water. This causes problems with a foul odour and humidity.

So how to manage the poultry litter?

  • The First method is thoroughly cleaning the shed more than once a year. This will control the odour and fly populations.
  • The Second method is to pasture the chickens. Moving of shelters can be a valuable tool while pasturing chickens and reducing cleaning time.
  • A third option is composting. Composting can be done right in the chickens’ bedding.

Respiratory Disease In Poultry

Respiratory Disease In Poultry - Vinayak IngredientsImagine a flock of 1000 chickens or may be a few backyard chickens. In both the case you can encounter major challenge in controlling respiratory diseases in poultry, when trying to maintain a healthy flock. So what are the most common signs you see in your flock. These could be- sneezing, discharge around the nostrils and eyes, open mouthed breathing, ruffled feathers, head shaking and wheezy breathing sounds.

The most common causes are described in brief below:

Newcastle Disease (ND), also known as pneumoencephilitis, is highly contagious and that attacks the internal organs (viscerotropic). All birds of wide age groups are susceptible to ND. Humans and other mammals are also affected by ND. ND occurs in three forms, lentogenic (mildly pathogenic), mesogenic (moderately pathogenic) and velogenic (highly pathogenic). It is characterized by a sudden onset of clinical signs including hoarse chirps (in chicks), watery discharge from nostrils, labored breathing (gasping), facial swelling, and paralysis, trembling and twisting of the neck. In laying birds, show symptoms such as decreased feed and water intake and a substantial drop in egg production. Newcastle virus can be transmitted by the air borne route or wild birds, contaminated footwear, workers, visitors, and dirty equipment. Newcastle virus is also transmitted in the egg and the infected embryos die before hatching.

In live birds, the virus is shed in body fluids, secretion, excreta and breath. There is no specific treatment for ND. Antibiotics can be given for 3-5 days to prevent two bacterial infections. However, prevention programs should include good sanitation, vaccination and implementation of a comprehensive biosecurity programme.

Infectious Bronchitis, also known as bronchitis or cold. It is found only in chickens. Similar disease occurs in quail caused by a different virus. The severity of infection is influenced by the age and immune status of the flock, by environmental conditions and by the presence of other diseases. Breathing noises are evident with a watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils. Feed and water consumption declines. Egg production drops dramatically. The IBV infects many tissues of the body, including the reproductive tract. It is known to spread by air, infected dead birds, infected houses and rodent. No specific treatment is available. But it can be prevented by enforcing a bio-security program. Vaccinations are also available.

Infectious coryza mostly affects chickens, pheasants and guinea fowl. It shows swelling around the face, foul smelling, thick, sticky discharge from the nostrils and eyes, labored breathing and rates. The birds may have diarrhea and growing birds may become stunted. Mortality is usually low. Transmission is primarily by direct bird-to-bird contact. This can be from infected birds brought into the flock as well as from birds which recover from the disease. Sulfadimethoxine is the preferred treatment antibiotic. Others such as erythromycin, sulfamethazine, and tetracycline can be used as alternative can be used as alternative treatment. Good management and sanitation are the best ways to avoid infectious coryza.

Avian influenza can occur in most, if not all, species of birds. AI is categorized as mild form which produces loss of appetite, listlessness, diarrhea, respiratory distress, dramatic drops in egg production and low mortality. The highly pathogenic form produces blue comb, facial swelling, wattles and dehydration with respiratory distress. Egg production and hatch ability decreases. There can be an increase in production of soft-shelled and shell-less eggs. AI virus can remain viable for long period of time at moderate temperatures. It can spread through shoes, clothing, crates and other equipment. Insects and rodents may mechanically carry the virus from infected to susceptible poultry. Broad spectrum antibiotics may reduce losses from secondary infections with proper nutrition, good husbandry. A vaccination program used in conjunction with a strict quarantine has been used to control mild form of the disease. With the more lethal form, strict quarantine and rapid destruction of all infected flocks remains the only effective method of stopping an avian influenza outbreak.

Infectious Bursal disease, also known as infectious bursitis mostly affects chickens. In affected chickens greater than three weeks of age, there is usually a rapid onset of the disease with a significant drop in feed and water consumption, watery droppings leading to soiling of feathers around the vent, and vent pecking. The virus is spread easily by infected bird contact, as well as by contact with contaminated people and equipment. The virus is also shed in the bird droppings and can be spread by air through dust particles. Dead birds are good source of the virus which should be incinerated. Antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitro-furans have little or no effect. Vitamin-electrolyte therapy is seldom effective. High levels of tetracycline are contaminated because they tie up calcium, thereby producing rickets. A vaccine is commercially available.

Fowl pox, also known as bird pox, sore head, avian diphtheria, chicken pox (not to be confused with chicken pox in humans). It affects mostly poultry, turkey, quail, duck; chickens- of all ages are susceptible. The clinical signs occur in two forms. The dry form characterised by raised wart-like lesions on un-feathered areas (head, legs, vent, etc). The lesions heal in about two weeks. In laying hens, infection result in a transient decline in egg production. The wet form shows presence of canker-like lesions in the mouth, trachea, pharynx, and larynx. It may cause respiratory distress by obstructing the upper air passages. Mosquitoes are the primary reservoir and spreaders of fowl pox on poultry ranges. Mosquitoes are infected by feeding on birds with fowl pox in their blood stream. Fowl pox can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected to susceptible birds. Currently, no treatment is available; however, fowl pox outbreaks can be controlled by killing mosquitoes. If fowl pox is endemic in the area, vaccination is recommended.

All the above diseases depict the significance of bio-security that is required in the farm. To help maintain a healthy poultry flock, farmers should buy birds from a reliable source, maintain a clean pen, feed an appropriate diet and protect the birds from disease and predators through proper biosecurity. Small flock owners should seek guidance from veterinary doctors if they have queries about the healthy and management of their flocks. In addition to improving animal welfare, economy, occupational health and consumer protection, future-oriented sustainable farm animal production should enhance standards aimed at preventing or reducing the respiratory diseases through air.

How can litter amendment systems be of help to the environment?

How can litter amendment systems be of help to the environment - Vinayak IngredientsLitter amendment refers to the treatment of the poultry litter with chemical, herbal or biological remedies to reduce ammonia emissions, microbial contamination and insect infestations on farms. The poultry litter is an excellent source of nitrogen rich nutrition for plants, thus many farmers sell the same as manure for significant revenue. The treatment of such manure is necessary owing to the high level of bacterial and fungal contamination’s coming from the poultry gut.

As amino acids and undigested nutrients form a big chunk of excreta of broilers or layers, this medium is enriched further for aerobic and anaerobic growth. The urea and uric acid deposited on the litter is converted into ammonia by a number of bacteria and fungi. This conversion is not only deleterious for the environment as pollutants, but also is harmful for the birds as the gas predisposes them to a respiratory etiology. As the nitrogen depletes from the litter and leaches into the environment it reduces the quality of poultry litter to be used as manure. Use of litter amendment systems with antimicrobial properties which is also safe for application with the birds present on the litter is essential.

These natural or chemical substances should be also targeting the urease and uricase positive bacteria and thus also reduce nitrogen depletion from litter as well as concurrently also affecting the ammonia formation in the poultry house. In the advent of complete environmentally controlled houses another important reason to use litter amendment systems is to reduce the litter moisture and thus also help control the humidity in the house. The dessicatory effects of such products also help in cooling the house more efficiently and curb ammonia emissions from the litter. As more concentration of good air exchange occurs between the house and the environment, the effect of ammonia on the environment can be curbed. A complete litter amendment system should possess all these qualities combined with the ease of application and preferably being a solution of natural origin for easy bio-degradation.

Litter Amendment System

Litter Amendment System - Vinayak Ingredients

As the litter goes, so goes the flock! This aphorism holds a strong meaning as it associates with management of the litter and its effect on air quality.Most of the time,litter quality often reflects how well one has managed these systems. This article deals with the litter treatments which are critical in management of the farm and control the spread of the pathogens. Hopefully, the following piece of information will aid in a better knowledge of some important management concepts with built up litter.

The most prevalent obnoxious gas in poultry housing is ammonia, among others producing irritation to the eyes and reducing resistance to infection in poultry. Ammonia is a colourless gas produced from the evolution of uric acid decomposition in chicken manure. Microbial decomposition converts uric acid to ammonia and carbon dioxide which is volatilise into the atmosphere. Many factors influence the growth of these uric acid degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) present in the litter such as temperature, moisture content and pH. The limiting ammonia concentration in poultry houses is recommended to be less than 25 ppm. Blake and Hess, in their report state about continuous exposure to ammonia concentrations of 10 ppm damaging bird’s respiratory system, making them susceptible to opportunistic infectious diseases.

Using litter amendments could be one of the solutions to the above problem. Litter amendment system can acts as an ammonia binder which help in improving the exposure of ammonia to the birds and reduces release of this greenhouse gas into the environment. Litter amendment systems also having disinfectant properties may be used as bio security enhancers in the poultry house. They also reduce the energy consumption by reducing ventilation required during winter season.Moore et al. have reported that the application of alum in broiler houses considerably reduced ammonia levels within three weeks. It stated better poultry performance due to lower ammonia levels in the early growth stage. Furthermore, it lowered the electric bills, as little ventilation was not required to reduce ammonia. Overall, the benefits of using alum were approximately double the cost of investment (To read morehttp://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Program/212/LivestockGRACEnet/AlumPoultryLitter.pdf).Similar results were obtained when poultry guard was used as a litter amendment, reported by McWard and Taylor. In addition, it also reduces darkling beetle populations and salmonella levels in the litter (To read more McWard, G. W., and D. R. Taylor. 2000. Acidified clay litter amendment. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 9:518-529).

The litter amendment product, USM-98, marketed by UAP Southwest of Pittsburg, Texas, uses a combination of beneficial microbes and enzymes. The manufacturers of these products claim that such treatments allow microbes to work in sub optimal conditions in the litter or improve the conditions in the litter to enhance performance of the microbes. Venting the produced ammonia during layout will result in lower ammonia levels when the chicks are placed in the house later. This result in reduction of ammonia concentration, reduced mortality rate, and improved the bird performance. P.S. the above product is not published in any scientific journals. Also, venting ammonia into the atmosphere pollutes the environment.

Using amendments may offer other economic and environmental benefits: 
• Reducing ammonia loss will increase the nutrient value of the litter while improving air quality.
• Reducing ammonia production may reduce ventilation needs and, hence, energy costs in houses that have inadequate ventilation.
• Odor complaints from neighbours may be reduced.
• Pathogen and pest levels in the house may be reduced.
• Water quality may improve because the use of alum can reduce the loss of soluble phosphorus and heavy metals in the runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

Chemicals are also added to the litter to either reduce microbial growth or inhibit the mode of action, there by slowing the decomposition of uric acid. For instance, Phenyl phosphorodiamidate inhibits urease activity, reducing conversion of urea into ammonia. The main disadvantage is that inhibitors are currently not economically feasible to growers.A natural clay mineral, clinoptilolite (a type of zeolite) along with peat tend to adsorb ammonia. However, it has received mix reviews. One report states fair reductions in ammonia, while other study reports large increase in ammonia levels.Alkaline materials such as agricultural lime (CaCO3), hydrated or slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), or burnt lime (CaO) increase litter alkalinity and convert more of the ammonium in the litter into ammonia gas.However, this method releases lot of ammonia into the atmosphere, diminishing the fertiliser value of the litter, giving negative impact on the environment. Furthermore, if the alkaline material is not completely utilised during the layout period between flocks, ammonia levels in the house may increase when fresh manure is added to the litter.

To limit ammonia production, litter moisture below 30%;the litter pH should be below 7.0; and temperature at the level of the broiler’s satisfaction. Acidifies reduce ammonia levels in the poultry house and improve in-house air quality.This not only improves bird performance and health but also may positively impact worker health. Acidifies may decrease microbial loads in the litter, as well as pathogen dissemination to processing plants through the birds, thus becoming a useful bio-security control in the overall Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. Further acidifies also decrease darkling beetle populations at higher application rates. Finally, a well balanced fertiliser (high N/P ratio) will meet to the requirements of most crops. Overall, acidifiers are the most effective and widely used type of poultry litter amendment.

Currently, there is a growing interest in regulating ammonia emissions from animal facilities at each levels of the poultry industry. Many research studies has shown that litter amendments reduce ammonia levels in the poultry house and improve bird performance and health along with other economic and environmental benefits as well. In brief, the way in which we control built up litter will continue to modify as we are challenged with developing poultry production, welfare,food safety and environmental concerns.

Essentiolitt Poultry–Biosecurity & Ammonia control

Essentiolitt Poultry–Biosecurity & Ammonia control - Vinayak IngredientsBiosecurity is one of the most talked about topic in the poultry industry.

One of the important parts of the Biosecurity is ‘Litter Management’.

Generally used beddings in broiler farms are rice husk / hulls, wooden sieves etc. This bedding in addition with birds’ droppings, feathers, water spillage & wet litter zone at both the ends (cooling pads & exhaust) makes a suitable environment for micro-organisms to grow, leading infection & respiratory issues in flocks. Another disadvantage is formation & emission of ammonia gas, which not only creates a problem for the birds but is also harmful for the environment.

To answer this long standing issue naturally,

ESSENTIOLITT POULTRY’ has been innovated which contains essential oils & standardized mixture of clay.

The mixture of clay present in Essentiolitt Poultry absorbs the moisture content & essential oils helps in reducing the microbial count inhibiting the growth of ammonia, forming bacteria thus reducing the formation of ammonia gas in the farm. Also the property of slow volatility of essential oils helps in lengthening the product effect; maintains the odor in the farm & gives soothing effect to the respiratory tract of the bird.

With unique standardized ingredients, Essentiolitt Poultry is a complete package to tackle the most important issue of Biosecurity.