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How to increase Performance and Production in Poultry

As poultry farming has already proven to be a profitable business with minimum investment. A combination of quality nutrition, veterinary guidance, and biosecurity in farm and bird management will help to ensure birds have the best possible chance to perform at their maximum potential.

The term FLAWS actually serves as a prompt for a detailed approach to good management practices, not only during the brooding stage but throughout the life of the flock. This reminds me of the routine check for basic parameters such as feed, light, litter, air, water, biosecurity, sanitation, space, and staff.

Pre-placement preparation

Advance preparation is needed before the new flock arrives to prevent losses during brooding and the rest of growing out.

Brooding management

Brooding is a period immediately after the hatch when special care and attention is given to chicks to support their health and survival. Since recently hatched chick has not yet developed their body mechanism to regulate its body temperature hence, it cannot maintain its body temperature properly for the first few weeks. Therefore the room temperature needs to adjust the temperature to 35°C (95F) at the edge of the brooder 2 inches (5cm) above the litter during the initial few weeks. Lower the temperature by 2.85°C (5F) each week until it reaches 70°F. Thus the temperature of 21°C appears to be ideal during the growing period. 

Litter management

The litter in a poultry house acts as bedding for the birds. Litter condition and quality have an impact on poultry health and profitability.

Proper management of wet litter is important for the intestinal health of birds. Without proper management, wet litter can serve as a potent source for hazardous pathogens and may also act as a start point for stress and infection that develops and leads to disease.

Also, wet litter problems increase, ammonia levels in the farm rise that are potentially detrimental to bird health.

Sometimes, when the litter is too dry and dusty becomes an indicator that the birds may not be drinking enough. The dry feces in the powder form may lead to respiratory problems.

Water management

Water is the most crucial nutrient for poultry. Drinking water accounts for 70–80 percent of the bird’s daily physiological needs. Poultry will generally consume more water than feed. An abundance of clean water will reduce challenges and maximize performance.

Feed management

Properly balanced feed formulated on the basis of age, sex, and physiological needs help in making the poultry full-grown and disease-free. Good feed quality that avoids contaminants such as mycotoxins is important to ensure performance.

Stocking density

Overcrowding during housing conditions generates high stress in poultry.  This has a negative impact on performance and production. Lowering stocking density throughout the overall production of the poultry may help to reduce stress.

Environmental management

General environmental management of the farm includes many components. Coccidiosis is one of the diseases of consideration based on the living condition of poultry.

As the poultry ingest eggs of parasites from contaminated litter, and these pass into the intestinal tract, They target the intestinal cells. Several cycles of replication occur which lead to the formation of new oocysts that are shed in the feces. When suitable environmental conditions like temperature and humidity prevail, the oocysts sporulate and become infective. The entire cycle takes 4 to 6 days. Thus massive immense replication during the intracellular phase makes the parasite a serious problem in farm management.

Mortality checks

Cull diseased birds as early as possible.

The embryonic development of chicken

The development of the chick starts in the single-cell framed by the union of two parental cells, egg and sperm, in the process known as fertilization. In birds, fertilization happens around 24 hours before the egg is laid.
At the time of laying, many cells are gathered in a little, whitish spot (the blastoderm or germinal disc) that is observed on the surface of the yolk.
At the point when the egg is laid and cools, the division of the cells stops. After the egg is laid, cooling the egg after the egg is laid does not bring about the death of the embryo. It might continue its development following a few days of rest on the off chance that it is again warmed by the hen or in a hatchery.
Special temporary organs or embryonic layers shaped inside the egg, both to protect the organism and to provide for its nutrition, respiration, and excretion. These organs incorporate the yolk sac, amnion, and allantois. The yolk sac supplies food material to the embryo. The amnion, by encasing the embryo, gives protection. The allantois filled in as a respiratory organ gets minerals from the shell, and handles waste. These brief organs work inside the egg until the time of hatching.
A few changes occur during the 18th and 21st days. The chick draws what remains of the yolk into its body when it hatches. The chick’s head is under its right-wing with the tip of the nose pointed at the air shell. The huge neck muscle contracts and forces the egg tooth through the air cell and the chick takes its first breath. This is known as interior pipping.
On the twenty-first day of brooding the chick completes its escape from the shell. The egg tooth makes the initial break in the shell. This is known as exterior pipping. The incubating process can last from 4 to 12 hours before the chick breaks free from the shell. The chick, as it shows up after liberating itself from the shell, is wet and exceptionally drained.
For the following a few hours it will lie still and rest. A couple of hours later the chick, now dry and soft, will turn out to be extremely active and the egg tooth will get and fall dry.