Hens are delicate to
day length, and especially to the course in which day length is changing, with
regards to laying eggs. Declining day lengths demoralize egg production.
Hens require a balanced
and adequate diet to keep up egg production. Every egg contains significant amount of protein
and vitality, which should first be consumed by the hen as a feature of its day by day nourishment admission. Too minimal
dietary vitality or an irregularity of amino acids can bring about discouraged
After a hen has been
delivering eggs for a while, she turns out to probably molt. Molting and egg production are not commonly
good, so when molting happens, egg production stops. The rest from egg laying
permits the hen to reestablish its plumage condition by shedding old quills and
growing new ones.
Numerous poultry diseases will influence egg
production. In the event that a disease is suspected, it is vital to counsel a
poultry veterinarian immediately. A timely diagnosis may permit compelling treatment for a few
sicknesses. On account of certain destructive diseases for example, very
pathogenic Avian Influenza, a
speedy diagnosis may prevent losses of entire flocks in whole area, and limit the danger of
zoonotic transmission of lethal illness from chickens to people, e.g., bird
Poultry house plan is important to
guarantee optimal airflow for bird cooling
and comfort. At the point when planning a modern
broiler house the
main question one considers is the ideal floor zone for the best return on investment (ROI). Also, and
similarly essential, is the thing that air
velocity is expected to keep the birds agreeable, and by what means will this impact energy costs?
The essential objective
of broiler farmer is
to empower feed
the minute the chicks land on the farm to when they leave for butcher.
The initial seven days
in the life of a chick are the most vital. The brooding period sets the point of
reference for good execution and additional exertion then will be compensated
in definite run execution. To guarantee a decent begin, the producer must give
a situation that guarantees ideal quick admission of sustain and water.
The other most difficult
period, particularly in the hot season is the grow-out phase – following 25 days.
Birds are completely feathered and hot surrounding conditions will challenge
These are some vital
1. Very much protected
smooth roofs and walls.
2. Great quality
channels for least and move ventilation
3. Satisfactory static
weight control, by intensive fixing of houses. Every new venture ought to be
appointed simply after weight testing.
4. Tunnel fan decision
in light of proficiency – not cost! Fan decision will be the most imperative
outline choice, particularly in hot atmospheres.
The rooftop and/or drop
roof protection is a standout amongst the most critical parts of any new house
extend. The best alternative is to introduce protection either on top of the
drop roof or against the rooftop.
The sum that the air in
a house heats up down the
length of the house depends fundamentally on three elements:
1. Metabolic heat included by the broilers
2. How rapidly the air in the house is exchanged.
3. Thermal properties of the house
To summarize, the key
plan choices in any new venture are by far insulation; inlet choice and
its establishment; the house’s capacity to keep up sufficient weight; and the decision
of passage fan.
If you are considering establishing an organic poultry enterprise there are many issues you will need to think about. These are some of the most important: • Soil type: The soil needs to be relatively free draining. Heavy, wetland not only makes access difficult, but it also creates more challenges for the birds; • Shelter: Poultry needs a sheltered environment. Exposed locations should be avoided if possible; • Labour: Organic poultry production is more labour intensive than conventional systems; the birds are housed in smaller groups, often in mobile housing. As the houses are often moved around the farm, there may be instances where the birds are some distance from the farm buildings; • Infrastructure: Water should be available in the house (both at the brooding and rearing stages), and preferably also on the range. You will need good access all year round, to feed, observe and manage the birds. At certain points in the rotation, the houses may be some distance from the farmyard and this may mean a significant amount of travelling, sometimes in less than ideal weather conditions; • Capital: A considerable amount of capital investment is required to establish a successful and efficient organic poultry production unit of any reasonable size. This may, depending on whether there are existing slaughter facilities available to you, also require setting up a processing unit on-farm; • Feed: The move towards 100% organic ration, increasing feed prices and the emphasis organic principles place on homegrown feed means that feed is a major consideration when considering setting up or converting to an organic poultry system.
We all know amino acids are building blocks of life. The application of amino acids in feed industry has been since four decades. Amino acids for feed now play key role in improving the efficiency of protein utilization in animal feeding. Among others, let’s discuss DL-Methioninesince it’s the first limiting amino acid, followed by L-Lysine and L-Threonine.
Methionine is an essential amino acid required by poultry an insufficient amount for optimum body weight gain or egg production. The deficiency of methionine, therefore, causes retarded growth in broilers and reduced egg production in layers. On the other hand, surplus of methionine has been associated with arthrosclerosis. Methionine is also a major constituent in feather formation. Its deficiency leads to poor feather growth and rise in the feather pecking in order to obtain adequate methionine. This behavior can lead to cannibalism among the flocks. This could be the worst nightmare ever possible to farmers. To our rescue, synthetic DL-Methionine began finding its way into the poultry industry since the late 1950s. Till now broiler requirements are been met by the use of synthetic methionine since it’s affordable to the farmers. By now we can sense how adverse effect can DL-methionine have on chickens.
The question that comes to our mind
is- How safe is synthetic Methionine to poultry?
To answer this, we first need to know little background chemistry about DL-Methionine. DL-methionine contains two isomers L-form and its mirror image D-form in equal ratios. However, only L-methionine can be utilized to synthesize protein. The second half D-methionine first needs to be converted to L form and then it’s available to use. To our surprise, D-methionine is not converted completely but around 90% in chickens. So what happens to the rest of the 10%? So if you learnt what happens in calves, it seems that it may result in elevated plasma methionine, then it could be evident that traces of DL-methionine can be found in the carcasses of Methionine fed broilers. (J. P. Felix D’Mello, Amino acids in animal nutrition, CABI publishing, UK).
methionine requirements have always been into controversies. It has been
heavily criticized for the use of synthetic amino acid in the feed to increase
the bird growth rather than its health. Moreover, synthetic methionine disturbs
the whole system of nitrogen cycle in the poultry. This has led to the
prohibition on the use of synthetic methionine in animal feed formulation by United
of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.
But not forgetting that a well balanced dietary protein and amino acids for poultry is a high priority issue among nutritionists for various reasons. First, cost of proteins and individual amino acids can be expensive nutrients in feed per unit weight. The price fluctuation of DL-Methionine and supply chain discrepancies result is massive shift of feed prices and reduces your profit. Therefore, selecting the appropriate level of amino acids becomes your critical economic decision. You will reach this goal only if you are dosing your methionine correctly. Inconsistency can never be avoided in an industry where raw materials are heavily applied. Therefore whatever you add in your feed diet, will surely affect your main objective.
Therefore, addition of supplemental methionine in feed formulation requires precision. Second, the environmental pollution issues about nitrogen excretion from the poultry farming which can cause pollution of soil, air and water. A study shows that one percent reduction of crude protein in a diet can yield 8 to 10% reduction of nitrogen excretion. Hence it can be said that 3 to 4% reduction of crude protein with supplementation of first, second and third limiting amino acids can yield same growth performance with 30 to 40% reduction of nitrogen emission. And third, poor quality dietary proteins and amino acids can have major negative impact in heat stress conditions which is because of inefficient amino acid digestibility.
Well, many of the scientists are in constant discovery or invention to combat these hurdles. Moritz along with its colleagues in its article explains the use of feed restriction to increase commercial broiler forage intake. Thus, the plant material consumed along with any insects if available can be sufficient to obtain methionine.
Synthetic methionine and feed restriction effects on performance and meat quality of organically reared broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14:521–535). However, the availability of the methionine solely depends on the forage composition and its management. Also providing large scale flocks with quality pasture would be difficult. In addition, the forage quality and quantity will differ significantly time to time.
Halder and Roy have compared the performance of broilers between no added methionine group, synthetic methionine fed group and herbal derived methionine group (Halder, G. and B. Roy, 2007. Effect of herbal or synthetic methionine on performance, cost benefit ratio, meat and feather quality of broiler chicken. Int. J. Agric. Res., 2: 987-996). The results show that liver triglycerides in methionine fed group were evidently high in contrast to herbal derived methionine group.
Overall performance in both methionine-supplemented groups was found similar (higher than the methionine deficient group). However, the quality of the protein makes it difficult in digestibility in the intestine. To summarize, there is still no proper way out to this crisis. Remember, Science is never done, it’s always changing. The goal of science is to devise framework, to describe how things works together, to study things are right now so that we can predict how things will be in the future. And so if we learn to trust science in all its fuzziness and incompleteness, it can prove to be best tool to find solution to these problems. After all, animal welfare, managing food safety and environmental issues are our major concerns.