Is It Necessary To Premix?

Is It Necessary To Premix in livestock feedA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilise the coefficient of variety (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterised as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal get no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) ought to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices covers covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix: Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturised scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entrainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effectively and proficiently by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement: This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blend. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilised as carriers. Be that as it may, the adsorptive properties of ground grain and oil seed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed: Finished feed might be prepared as follows: 1) include the grain portion of the diet to the blender; 2) add the dry supplement  to the centre of the blender (if possible, include supplement the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released); 3) permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute; 4) add forage part of the diet; 5) add fat segment of the diet; 6) add molasses of the diet; 7) permit to blend for the time determined for the blender.

4) Adding Molasses: Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses is especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degree Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing

Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel to the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of crossed contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that affect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from supplier.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of methodology followed to guarantee quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and the Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program— are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry Production

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry ProductionIf you are considering establishing an organic poultry enterprise there are many issues you will need to think about. These are some of the most important:

Soil type: The soil needs to be relatively free draining. Heavy, wet land not only makes access difficult, it also creates more challenges for the birds;

Shelter: Poultry need a sheltered environment. Exposed locations should be avoided if possible;

Labour: Organic poultry production is more labour intensive than conventional systems; the birds are housed in smaller groups, often in mobile housing. As the houses are often moved around the farm, there may be instances where the birds are some distance from the farm buildings;

Infrastructure: Water should be available in the house (both at the brooding and rearing stages), and preferably also on the range. You will need good access all year round, to feed, observe and manage the birds. At certain points in the rotation, the houses may be some distance from the farm yard, and this may mean a significant amount of travelling, sometimes in less than ideal weather conditions;

Capital: A considerable amount of capital investment is required to establish a successful and efficient organic poultry production unit of any reasonable size. This may, depending on whether there are existing slaughter facilities available to you, also require setting up a processing unit on farm;

Feed: The move towards 100% organic ration, increasing feed prices and the emphasis organic principles place on home grown feed mean that feed is a major consideration when considering setting up or converting to an organic poultry system.

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilers?

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilersA comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY™ as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation), Treatment 1 (containing added DL-methionine) and Treatment2 (containing KiFAY™ and without DL-methionine supplementation). The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio) were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks. Analysis of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) were performed at the end of the study.

The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY™ performed significantly (p<0.001) better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed in-take and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY™ treated birds. The study shows an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001) in KiFAY™ than other treatments. Serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the treatment2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001). The KiFAY™ supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.

Step Towards “Ammonia- Free” Environment For Poultry

Step Towards “Ammonia- Free” Environment For PoultryNitrogen is highly found in animal excreta and can exist in various forms. One such form is “Ammonia”. Primarily ammonia is a result of breakdown of urea present in urine of birds by the enzymes; urease and uricase. It is a potential source to create bad odour and negatively impact air and water quality and animal as well as human health. Presence of ammonia above 25ppm in the poultry house can damage the respiratory system of the birds and also there is a reduction in immune system; leading to declining flock health and performance. In addition to the effects on bird’s health, ammonia has significant hazardous effect on the caretakers and to the environmental ecology.

High levels of ammonia emission inside the poultry house have also become a cause of concern for the atmosphere outside the poultry house. Therefore there is a great need to develop strategies to reduce ammonia formation, volatilization, or downwind transmission of ammonia after it is volatilised from the poultry manure to minimise the harmful effects of ammonia on animal and human health as well as the environment.

Keeping this in mind and with a view to develop ‘ammonia- free ‘and organic environment for all, Vinayak Ingredients have launched a product with a brand name “KiFAY” which is a blend of various herbal extracts in a diatomaceous carrier which acts as a DL-Methionine replacer and a nutritional feed additive and goes directly into the feed and acts as an amino acid optimiser and improves the apparent ileal digestibility of the feed and hence improves the protein turnover this also reduces the amount of amino acid degradation by the liver and excretion by kidney which form the major part of nitrogen compounds excreted by poultry. In turn these compounds are also responsible for ammonia and smell in the poultry house, apart from posing stressors for liver and kidney.

Vinayak Ingredients have also launched a Bio-security product which combats the remaining ammonia emission in the droppings of the birds which acts as a litter amendment system under the brand name of “ESSENTIOLITT-POULTRY”. Essentiolitt poultry is an ammonia binder and has bactericidal action on urease and uricase enzymes and inhibit the ammonia formation by increasing 45% nitrogen retention and ammonia emission.

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

We all know amino acids are building blocks of life. The application of amino acids in feed industry has been since four decades. Amino acids for feed now play key role in improving the efficiency of protein utilisation in animal feeding. Among others, let’s discuss DL-Methionine since it’s the first limiting amino acid, followed by L-Lysine and L-Threonine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid required by poultry in sufficient amount for optimum body weight gain or egg production. Deficiency of methionine therefore causes retarded growth in broilers and reduced egg production in layers. On the other hand, surplus of methionine has been associated with atherosclerosis. Methionine is also a major constituent in feather formation. Its deficiency leads to poor feather growth and rise in the feather pecking in order to obtain adequate methionine. This behaviour can lead to cannibalism among the flocks. This could be the worst nightmare ever possible to farmers. To our rescue, synthetic DL-Methionine began finding its way into poultry industry since late 1950s. Till now broiler requirements are been met by the use of synthetic methionine since it’s affordable to the farmers. By now we can sense that how adverse effect can DL-methionine have on chickens.

The question that comes to our mind is- How safe is synthetic Methionine to poultry?

To answer this, we first need to know little background chemistry about DL-Methionine. DL-methionine contains two isomers L-form and its mirror image D-form in equal ratios. However, only L-methionine can be utilized to synthesizer protein. The second half D-methionine first needs to be converted to L form and then it’s available to use. To our surprise, D-methionine is not converted completely but around 90% in chickens. So what happens to the rest of the 10%? So if you learnt what happens in calves, it seems that it may result in elevated plasma methionine, then it could be evident that traces of DL-methionine can be found in the carcasses of Methionine fed broilers. (J. P. Felix D’Mello, Amino acids in animal nutrition, CABI publishing, UK).

Poultry methionine requirements have always been into controversies. It has been heavily criticized for the use of synthetic amino acid in the feed to increase the bird growth rather than its health. Moreover, synthetic methionine disturbs the whole system of nitrogen cycle in the poultry. This has led to the prohibition on the use of synthetic methionine in animal feed formulation by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.

But not forgetting that a well balanced dietary protein and amino acids for poultry is a high priority issue among nutritionists for various reasons. First, cost of proteins and individual amino acids can be expensive nutrients in feed per unit weight. The price fluctuation of DL-Methionine and supply chain discrepancies result is massive shift of feed prices and reduces your profit. Therefore, selecting the appropriate level of amino acids becomes your critical economic decision. You will reach this goal only if you are dosing your methionine correctly. Inconsistency can never be avoided in an industry where raw materials are heavily applied. Therefore whatever you add in your feed diet, will surely affect your main objective. Therefore, addition of supplemental methionine in feed formulation requires precision. Second, the environmental pollution issues about nitrogen excretion from the poultry farming which can cause pollution of soil, air and water. A study shows that one percent reduction of crude protein in a diet can yield 8 to 10% reduction of nitrogen excretion. Hence it can be said that 3 to 4% reduction of crude protein with supplementation of first, second and third limiting amino acids can yield same growth performance with 30 to 40% reduction of nitrogen emission. And third, poor quality dietary proteins and amino acids can have major negative impact in heat stress conditions which is because of inefficient amino acid digestibility.

Well, many of the scientists are in constant discovery or invention to combat these hurdles. Moritz along with its colleagues in its article explains the use of feed restriction to increase commercial broiler forage intake. Thus, the plant material consumed along with any insects if available can be sufficient to obtain methionine. To read more see (Moritz, J. S., A. S. Parsons, N. P. Buchanan, N. J. Baker, J. Jaczynski, O. J. Gekara and W. B. Bryan. 2005. Synthetic methionine and feed restriction effects on performance and meat quality of organically reared broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14:521–535). However, the availability of the methionine solely depends on the forage composition and its management. Also providing large scale flocks with quality pasture would be difficult. In addition, the forage quality and quantity will differ significantly time to time.

Halder and Roy have compared the performance of broilers between no added methionine group, synthetic methionine fed group and herbal derived methionine group (Halder, G. and B. Roy, 2007. Effect of herbal or synthetic methionine on performance, cost benefit ratio, meat and feather quality of broiler chicken. Int. J. Agric. Res., 2: 987-996). The results show that liver triglycerides in methionine fed group were evidently high in contrast to herbal derived methionine group. Overall performance in both methionine-supplemented groups was found similar (higher than the methionine deficient group). However, the quality of the protein makes it difficult in digestibility in the intestine.

To summarise, there is still no proper way out to this crisis. Remember, Science is never done, it’s always changing. The goal of science is to devise framework, to describe how things works together, to study things are right now so that we can predict how things will be in the future. And so if we learn to trust science in all its fuzziness and incompleteness, it can prove to be best tool to find solution to these problems. After all, animal welfare, managing food safety and environmental issues are our major concerns.