Biofilm Management In Poultry

Water is essential in controlling body temperature, supports the immune system, assist in food digestion, and aids in the processing and elimination of body wastes. Regardless of procurement of water, another concern is contamination of water inside the watering systems through a substance called “BIOFILM. It occurs when bacteria attach to the pipe walls in a drinking system, creating a sticky substrate.

Biofilms are commonly defined as attached bacterial colonies of either single or multiple species, encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms support the survival of bacteria in suboptimal conditions and increase resistance to disinfectants, antimicrobials, and antibiotics. To date, it is estimated that 99% of bacteria can grow in biofilms, and it is has been suggested that for the majority of bacteria, biofilms are the normal mode of existence.

 Plant essential oils like Thyme, Eucalyptol, Clove, Citronella, etc have been used for hundreds of years as natural medicines to combat a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses . Several essential oils confer antimicrobial activity by damaging the cell wall and membrane, leading to cell lysis, leakage of cell contents, and inhibition of proton motive force.  In addition, there is evidence that they effectively kill bacteria without promoting the acquisition of resistance.

A blend of all such essential oils is HERBOFLOXIN”-This micro emulsified system;

  • The target zone for Herbofloxin is the gut; it has an antimicrobial effect in the gut due to which there is no bioflim formation.
  • It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria. This action of Herbofloxin, in turn, provides a natural growth promoter effect in Poultry.
  • Herbofloxin is freely soluble in water and targets species include Salmonella, E.coli, Campylobacter and Clostridium

5 TIPS TO COMBAT BIO-AEROSOLS IN POULTRY

Aerial pollutants in confined animal houses are widely recognized as detrimental to the respiratory health of animals kept in these facilities. Primary and opportunistic microbial pathogens may directly cause infectious and allergic diseases in farm animals, and chronic exposure to some types of aerial pollutants may exacerbate multi-factorial environmental diseases.

The key pollutants recognized in the airspace of livestock buildings are particles including dust, micro-organisms and their toxins, and gases
such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and more than 100 trace gases such as volatile fatty acids. Under commercial production conditions the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources, with bacteria, toxins, gases and volatile organic compounds adsorbed to them.

Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol. Their sizes can range from aerodynamic diameters of 0.5 to 100 µm.

How are bio-aerosols formed?
Under commercial production, the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources. The chickens produce large amounts of dust as a result of epithelial desquamation, as well as from feed, manure, feces and litter (Matković et al., 2009). This dust consists of a variety of airborne particles of biological origin, i.e. bacteria, fungi, endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, 1.3-beta-glucan of fungi, fungal spores and mycelium fragments. Hence, a more
a descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol in which the microorganisms can occur either as liquid droplets or as dry particles.
To prevent this problem in poultry, Vinayak Ingredients has introduced a very effective product called “ESSENTIOLITT POULTRY”.

Essentiolitt Poultry is a blend of essential oils that works as a poultry sanitizer and reduces the formation of Bio-aerosols. Its features are as below:
1) 50% reduced respiratory diseases.
2) It posses potential as natural agents for airborne bacterial activity inhibitors.
3) They are ecological products for insect pests control
4) Reduction in mortality of birds due to severe respiratory problems
5) It acts as a Biosecurity in Farms.

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds

Water management is the most critical components in a top-performing broiler flock. In high performing flocks, at around 21˚C, cutting edge broilers by and large will consume 1.8 to 2 times more water than feed, in weight. Water consumption will change contingent upon ecological temperature, feed quality and bird health:

1.         Water consumption increases by 6% for each expansion in 1˚C between 20-32°C.

2.         Water consumption increases by 5% for each expansion in 1˚C between 32-38°C.

3.         Feed consumption diminishes by 1.23% for each expansion in 1˚C over 20°C.

Any considerable change in water utilization should be researched as this may show a water leak, health issues or feed problem. A drop in water consumption is frequently the primary marker of a flock issue. To assess flock performance legitimately we have to know how much water birds are consuming each day.

Large portions of today’s high performance broilers are being brought up in housing built for the broiler of the past. There are numerous alternatives used to guarantee water volume/stream will address bird issues at high pinnacle request times. Advanced water meters associated with the house controller can screen water consumption on a 24-hour premise as well as in distributed time increases amid the day. This data can figure out whether our water system is keeping up at basic ‘appeal’ times, as when the lights go ahead after a dull period. Knowing this can be extremely useful in finding performance issues on a ranch, particularly one with huge, multi-houses.

The temperature of the water that birds are drinking should also be considered. The perfect water temperature ought to associate with 10-14˚C originating from the source. Water consumed by the birds should not be over 30˚C. In the event that this happens the drinking system ought to be flushed intermittently to look after cooler, fresher water.

Along with temperature and accessibility the quality of water offered to chickens should be considered for proper growth of Broilers. The quality of water depends on several factors such as presence of bacteria and other microbes, PH, Level of minerals etc. Disinfectants like Chlorine are widely used in poultry industry for disinfection of water but it has many disadvantages such as carcinogenicity, ph dependent activity, highly corrosive and irritating substance. To avoid such problems and to improve performance of broilers Vinayak ingredients has launched an excellent product Herbofloxin which is blend of essential oils effective as Non- antibiotic growth promoter. It is used to replace disinfectants, antibioticts and acidifier used for growth promotion in water.

MOA of Herbofloxin: – It is a micro emulsion when mixed with a water forms nanoemulsion making it easier to penetrate bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. It is stable at 5 to 45 degree Celsius temperature and has long shelf life.

The advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:-

  • More than 10% improvement in weight gain
  • Chlorine free meat
  • Pathogen free meat
  • No antibiotic residue
  • Carcass sanitizer
  • Litter improver

Do you know the good, the bad and the ugly of inflammation in poultry?

know the good, the bad and the ugly of inflammation in poultry?

Inflammatory responses in birds are because of an immune response. These immune responses can be non-specific (innate) immunity and specific (adaptive) immunity. Thus, the inflammatory responses can be cell-specific as in case of cell-mediated immune responses which include T or B
lymphocyte responses. These are localized or site-specific whereas non-specific responses are more generalized involving phagocytic cells and innate antibody. A generalized mass inflammatory response has an overwhelming effect on today’s commercial poultry. The chain reaction of events caused by an antigen always involves the innate immunity reaction prior to the involvement of cell mediated immunity. As we learnt in in vaccination basics, vaccines improve specific antibody titers to prevent
infection of target microbes. But does this stop inflammatory responses arising from the innate side of the bird? Do these inflammatory responses affect poultry?
Immunity in its most non-specific forms has more demerits than otherwise. The preventive blanket of mucin and ciliary responses as in the case of respiratory and gut-associated infections is affected the most in the generalized inflammatory tidal wave. Many researchers have associated tethered mucin thinning and reduced ciliary activity as a primary reason for active infection in birds. Onc opportunistic commensals evade, they spread fast. Most cell-mediated responses that may are associated with these commensals would respond very late to such an onslaught. The most pronounced effects of these infections would be in high-stress conditions especially in heat stress. Heat stress and high ammonia concentrations or similar stresses would require rapid panting behavior which would mimic generalized inflammatory responses.
Immunization reactions are common in poultry where generalized immunity might be one of the reasons for morbidity. The birds are at this stage in their young but antibody deficient forms. As it is, Vaccination is a boon in the poultry industry but frequent respiratory outbreaks could point a direction towards controlling the span of their inflammatory reign. We have seen protection from certain diseases provided by warmth generated from poultry body, and have seen several mortalities from heat stress, similarly balancing this double-edged sword should be left to nature. It is most reassuring to see the improving specifics in immunization but at the same time, it is scary to see the broadening antigen carrying potential of the microbes. All considered, surely inflammation would play a vital part in the
future of poultry rearing.