Biofilm Management In Poultry

Biofilm Management In Poultry

Water is essential in controlling body temperature, supports the immune system, assist in food digestion, and aids in the processing and elimination of body wastes. Regardless of procurement of water, another concern is contamination of water inside the watering systems through a substance called “BIOFILM. It occurs when bacteria attach to the pipe walls in a drinking system, creating a sticky substrate.

Biofilms are commonly defined as attached bacterial colonies of either single or multiple species, encased in an extracellular matrix.

Biofilms support the survival of bacteria in suboptimal conditions and increase resistance to disinfectants, antimicrobial, and antibiotics. To date, it is estimated that 99% of bacteria can grow in biofilms, and it is suggested that for the majority of bacteria, biofilms are the normal mode of existence.

Plant essential oils like Thyme, Eucalyptol, Clove, Citronella, etc. Have been used for hundreds of years as natural medicines to combat a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Several essential oils confer antimicrobial activity by damaging the cell wall and membrane, leading to cell lysis, leakage of cell contents, and inhibition of proton motive force.  In addition, there is evidence that they effectively kill bacteria without promoting the acquisition of resistance.

A blend of all such essential oils is HERBOFLOXIN”-This micro emulsified system;

  • The target zone for Herbofloxin is the gut; it has an antimicrobial effect in the gut due to which there is no biofilm formation.
  • It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria. This action of Herbofloxin in turn provides a natural growth promoter effect in Poultry.
  • Herbofloxin is freely soluble in water and target species include Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter and Clostridium

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

5 Tips To Combat Bio Aerosols In Poultry

Combat Bio Aerosols In PoultryAerial pollutants in confined animal houses are widely recognized as detrimental to the respiratory health of animals kept in these facilities. Primary and opportunistic microbial pathogens may directly cause infectious and allergic diseases in farm animals, and chronic exposure to some types of aerial pollutants may exacerbate multi-factorial environmental diseases. The key pollutants recognized in the airspace of livestock buildings are particles, including dust, micro-organisms and their toxins, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and more than 100 trace gases such as volatile fatty acids. Under commercial production conditions the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources, with bacteria, toxins, gases and volatile organic compounds adsorbed to them. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol. Their sizes can range from aerodynamic diameters of 0.5 to 100 µm.

How are bio-aerosols formed?

Under commercial production the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources. The chickens produce large amounts of dust as a result of epithelial desquamation, as well as from feed, manure, faeces and litter (Matković et al., 2009). This dust consists of a variety of airborne particles of biological origin, i.e. Bacteria, fungi, endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, 1.3-beta-glucan of fungi, fungal spores and mycelium fragments. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol in which the microorganisms can occur either as liquid droplets or as dry particles.

To prevent this problem in poultry, Vinayak Ingredients has introduced a very effective product called “ESSENTIOLITT POULTRY”. Essentiolitt Poultry is a blend of essential oils which works as a poultry sanitizer and reduces the formation of Bio-aerosols. Its features are as below:

  1. 50% reduced respiratory diseases.
  2. It posses potential as natural agents for airborne bacterial activity inhibitors.
  3. They are ecological products for insect pest control.
  4. Reduction in mortality of birds due to severe respiratory problems.
  5. It is acting as a Bio-security in Farms.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds - Vinayak IngredientsWater management is the most critical components in a top-performing broiler flock. In high performing flocks, at around 21˚C, cutting edge broilers by and large will consume 1.8 to 2 times more water than feed, in weight. Water consumption will change, contingent upon ecological temperature, feed quality and bird health:

  1. Water consumption increases by 6% for each expansion in 1˚C between 20-32°C.
  2. Water consumption increases by 5% for each expansion in 1˚C between 32-38°C.
  3. Feed consumption diminishes by 1.23% for each expansion in 1˚C over 20°C.

Any considerable change in water utilization should be researched as this may show a water leak, health issues or feed problem. A drop in water consumption is frequently the primary marker of a flock issue. To assess flock performance legitimately we have to know how much water birds are consuming each day.

Large portions of today’s high performance broilers are being brought up in housing built for the broiler of the past. There are numerous alternatives used to guarantee a water volume/stream will address bird issues at high pinnacle request times. Advanced water meters associated with the house controller can screen water consumption on a 24-hour premise as well as in distributed time increases amid the day. This data can figure out whether our water system is keeping up at basic ‘appeal’ times, as when the lights go ahead after a dull period. Knowing this can be extremely useful in finding performance issues on a ranch, particularly one with huge, multi-houses.

The temperature of the water that birds are drinking should also be considered. The perfect water temperature ought to associate with 10-14˚C originating from the source. Water consumed by the birds should not be over 30˚C. In the event that this happens the drinking system ought to be flushed intermittently to look after cooler, fresher water.

Along with temperature and accessibility the quality of water offered to chickens should be considered for proper growth of Broilers. The quality of water depends on several factors such as the presence of bacteria and other microbes, PH, Level of minerals etc. Disinfectants like Chlorine are widely used in the poultry industry for disinfection of water, but it has many disadvantages such as carcinogenicity, pH dependent activity, highly corrosive and irritating substance. To avoid such problems and to improve performance of broilers Vinayak ingredients has launched an excellent product Herbofloxin which is a blend of essential oils effective as Non- antibiotic growth promoter. It is used to replace disinfectants, antibiotics and acidifier used for growth promotion in water.

MOA of Herbofloxin : – It is a micro emulsion when mixed with a water forms nanoemulsion making it easier to penetrate bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. It is stable at 5 to 45 degree Celsius temperature and has long shelf life.

The advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:-

  • More than 10% improvement in weight gain
  • Chlorine free meat
  • Pathogen free meat
  • No antibiotic residue
  • Carcass sanitizer
  • Litter improver

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Do you know the good, the bad and the ugly of inflammation in poultry?

Inflammatory responses in birds are because of an immune response. These immune responses can be non-specific (innate) immunity and specific (adaptive) immunity.  Thus, the inflammatory responses can be cell specific as in case of cell mediated immune responses which include T or B lymphocyte responses. These are localized or site specific, whereas non-specific responses are more generalized involving phagocytic cells and innate antibody.  A generalized mass inflammatory response has an overwhelming effect on today’s commercial poultry. The chain reaction of events caused by an antigen always involves the innate immunity reaction prior to the involvement of cell mediated immunity. As we learnt in in vaccination basics, vaccines improve specific antibody titers to prevent infection of target microbes. But does this stop inflammatory responses arising from the innate side of the bird? Do these inflammatory responses affect poultry?

Immunity in its most non-specific forms has more demerits than otherwise. The preventive blanket of mucin and ciliary responses as in case of respiratory and gut associated infections is affected the most in the generalized inflammatory tidal wave. Many researchers have associated tethered mucin thinning and reduced ciliary activity as a primary reason for an active infection in birds. Once opportunistic commensals evade, they spread fast. Most cell mediated responses which may be associated with these commercials would respond very late to such an onslaught. The most pronounced effects of these infections would be in high stress conditions, especially in heat stress. Heat stress and high ammonia concentrations or similar stresses would require rapid panting behavior which would mimic generalized inflammatory responses.

Immunization reactions are common in poultry where the generalized immunity might be one of the reasons for morbidity. The birds are at this stage in their young, but antibody deficient forms. As it is, Vaccination is a boon in the poultry industry but frequent respiratory outbreaks could point a direction towards controlling the span of their inflammatory reign. We have seen protection from certain diseases provided with warmth generated from poultry body, and have seen several mortalities from heat stress, similarly balancing this double edged sword should be left to nature. It is most reassuring to see the improving specifics in immunization, but at the same time it is scary to see the broadening antigen carrying potential of the microbes. All considered, surely inflammation would play a vital part in the future of poultry rearing.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Antibiotic Alternative & Growth Promoter

Antibiotic Alternative Growth Promoter - Vinayak IngredientsAnimal diseases have a large impact on the economy of the livestock industry having total estimated global losses up to $2773 million annually. The disease may have a direct effect on performance through decreased production of milk, wool, or eggs, reduced fertility, delays in reaching maturation of reproductive system, decreased draught power or decreased weight of cull animals. These epidemics have the direct effect on farmers, consequently affecting agricultural sector and the national economy.
There is no doubt in the fact that certain dietary antibiotics have been playing a pivotal role in promoting good growth and health in animal production and feed conversion efficiency. However, the emergence of drug resistance among pathogens and public concerns of antibiotic residues in meat has led the European Commission (EC) to draw a critical decision to ultimately ban (January 1st, 2006), the marketing and application of antibiotics growth promoters (AGP) as feed additive (EC Regulation No. 1831/20031). This verdict was taken on the basis of the precautionary principle: ‘Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation’ (Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration, 19922).

Will the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed have the desired effect of reducing the overall level of antimicrobial use in animals? At the moment, this looks to be highly unlikely, as statistics continue to show a sudden rise in the use of AGP used for remedial purposes, even though there is a significant reduction in the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. In countries such as the USA the use of AGP in the poultry industry has been formally declined. This has led to increase in FCR and rise in the incidence of necrotic enteritis. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an acute infection caused by Clostridium species. This is characterized by excessive dehydration, severe intestinal tissue necrosis with an increase in death rate. Such sick birds that do not have access to appropriate treatment are likely to carry much heavier loads of bacteria at the time of processing. The escalating usage of treatment antibiotics is essential for the effective control of prevalent diseases such as coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in poultry, diarrhoea and inflammation of ileum in pigs, which have serious consequences and may badly affect production performance. From a veterinary point of view, withdrawing AGPs and in-feed anticoccidials may open the door to more enteric pathogen invasion.
In light of recent publicity surrounding the use of antibiotics by livestock and poultry industries, there are reports claiming to be alternatives to antibiotics which have the direct or indirect effect on microflora. Ideally, the alternatives to AGP should function in a same way as growth promoters without hindering its beneficial effects i.e.

(1) By reducing the amount of toxins and other metabolites produced by gram-positive bacteria.

(2) By increasing the intestinal wall permeability thereby improving absorption of nutrients.

(3) By blocking enzymes secreted by the pathogens thereby reducing the incidence and severity of sub-clinical infections.

Few of the most widely used alternatives for AGP along with their mode of action is briefly discussed:

Organic acids
Organic acids are widely distributed in animal tissues formed through catabolism of carbohydrates by microbial fermentation mainly in the caecum of the poultry intestine. The antibacterial nature of organic acid is mainly due to the low pH. The environmental pH change affects the dissociation of the acid which enhances the antimicrobial effect. The dissociated form of acid molecules freely diffuses through the semi-permeable membrane of microorganisms into the cell cytoplasm. Once in the cell, the acid molecules will disrupt the cell enzymes and nutrient transport mechanism.
To read more: Adams, C., 1999. Nutricines: Food Components in Health and Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, UK.

Probiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics are mixed cultures of live bacteria which improve the growth and characteristics of the indigenous microflora thereby benefiting the host’. The most well-known group of probiotics is lactic acid bacteria. Most of the probiotic strains produce specific metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide, secondary metabolites, and organic fatty acids. It also stimulates the immune system while interacting with the various receptor sites. On the other hand, Prebiotic are non-digestible feed ingredients with selective effects on the intestinal microflora. The mechanism of action of prebiotics as an alternative is dependent on the nature of the compound. They are feed ingredients that improve the activity of the gut microflora because of selective stimulation of the growth or metabolic activity of a limited number of intestinal micro-biota species, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus sp. Thus, they may have a similar mechanism of action as probiotics.

Herbs and essential oils
It is not an unknown fact that the herbs are used for beneficial therapeutic properties derived from their specific bio-active components. Most of the bioactive compounds of the plant are mostly secondary metabolites such as terpenoids (mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, etc.), phenolics (tannins), glycosides and alkaloids (present as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, lactones, etc).Essential oils are concentrated products with very strong aromatic fragrance produced by  these secondary metabolites. The mechanism of action of bio-active compounds on chemical constituents, biological factors and so on. Bio-active constituents derive from plants play important role in inhibiting the bacteria by inactivation of the protein, loss of function, neutralizing free radicals. The study of microbial activity of essential oils and other bio-active compounds on micro-organisms still remains area of future research.

CONCLUSION
Alternatives for AGPs are only of practical significance which improves animal performance as compared to AGPs.  Microflora stimulating and immunomodulatory compounds have potential and are used as feedstuff of feed additives. Acids, probiotics, prebiotic and herbs or essential oils are some examples of different naturally available products which are used as alternatives for AGPs. Within each product class, numerous other products are available in the market, of which some products are potentially good, for others the efficacy is not clear. Hence, this brings us to a point to describe the mechanism of actions of these useful vital compounds in a whole scientific manner that meets high grades for AGP alternatives for poultry.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Antibiotics in feed for poultry-do we need them?

Antibiotics in feed for poultry - Vinayak IngredientsThere is constant race for better meat yielding animals. As the grain costs increase on an annual basis, the drag co-efficient for the poultry industry has hit a new high. The need for cheap and not necessarily good quality raw materials is more than it ever was. As the nutritional basis for animal feed switches from cost effective to effective cost, there is need for the farmer to be more stringent in choosing the right feed formulation to meet rising demand for meat and eggs. While some choose to be eccentric and follow the all organic approach, more than 70 % of the farms choose to be otherwise. As the health of the bird becomes secondary especially in a short 28 day period, the drive for production is main reason for the advent of antibiotic use in animal feed in the 20th century with the intention to reduce mortality and improve weight gain. As antibiotics gained popularity, the heritage of newly discovered antibiotics passed quickly from human to animal use.

The approach towards poultry and other livestock used for food production has to be of a preventive medicine. The use of antibiotics for this purpose blurred the line between treatment and prevention. Let’s take some time to understand this briefly,  for human medicine, population medicine is individualistic, especially in case of microbial disease, whereas in case of poultry there is a close association between the birds in the house where it is always a sub population we intend to treat or prevent disease in. Using preventive medicine tools directs here to understand the trends and predict outcomes. We always try to go one better by improving bio security and management practices, so that we affix our outcomes of clean bird production.  Once we start using substances that kill micro-flora we are already invading the population by measures labelled as preventive, but actually treating a problem, so be it at a micro-scale. This so called preventive use of antibiotics in feed treats every birds differently, where in human medicine we consider parenteral as the route of choice for maximum efficacy, feeding birds orally forms one barrier, apart from not discussing how much one bird will consume and how often. Now we come to a question very recently asked by the pro –antibiotics lobby, how antibiotics used for the animal use and human use being different, have a chance to produce antibiotic resistance that is significant for human medicine. To put my point clearly below is a table published in one report that demarks different categories of antibiotics with respect to their in animal or in human use.

This report says as reported by FDA, but actually is an adaptation from the report and the table is not present in the original FDA version.

Even if we consider that the categories are different for human and animal use, how one ensures that antibiotics working on certain targets as cell wall or cell division are going to discriminate the categories. We are not even sure that how low dose of certain one category of antibiotics affects the cross development of antibiotic resistance.

So, where do we go from here, do we use antibiotics or not? Let’s now focus on what can be done.

We can list how we can collectively reduce antibiotics,

  1. Treat Invitro : This implies to enhancing the biosecurity measures in all inputs for the birds. Using safe, natural alternatives in these zones which include the water source, litter, House and feed. Using disinfectants of natural origin in these zones kill the microbes where they are most vulnerable that is outside the bird body.
  1. Focus on nutrition : Use bio-availability scales to improve the nutrition supply to the birds. Healthy birds survive on the accord on their own immunity and natural barriers. Remember the host also in the infection trilogy of pathogen, host and environment interaction.
  1. Clean processed birds for sale : The importance of slaughter house disinfection should not be lost. This is the last step that the producer can really control its quality of carcass. Using non-residual agents for cleansing of carcass.
  1. Gut is where all the action is : Improving gut flora results in better good micro flora dominance in the intestine. Additives that improve all supporting structures which enhance the micro climate for gut will improve gut associated lymphoid tissue and results in improved immunity and absorption. Gut health enhancement also reduces chances of pathogens passing into the blood and other vital organs. Reducing the endogenous losses from gut will also enhance amino acid turn-over in poultry.

Efforts should be made to cull such trends when they originate and the poultry industry should keep an open mind towards use of alternatives to antibiotics, as it would take some withdrawal time to wean off these dependencies.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd