A comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY™ as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation), Treatment1 (containing added DL-methionine) and Treatment2 (containing KiFAY™ and without DL-methionine supplementation). The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio) were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks.
Analysis of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) were performed at the end of the study. The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY™ performed significantly (p<0.001) better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed in-take and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY™ treated birds. The study shows an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001) in KiFAY™ than other treatments.
Serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the treatment2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001). The KiFAY™ supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.
Matrix is a term people will generally relate to the Keanu Reeves; even google will present you with this as a first page result. However matrix in the feed analogy is more related to something mathematical. The words digestible nutrients of feed ingredients and matrix are generally used as synonyms. But matrix actually represents the nutrients available in the feed additive together with the nutrients spared or made available by use of the same additive in the feed formulation. It represents the total nutrition provided to the animal body directly or indirectly by affecting the digestibility of feed. So, what is the use of matrix? We all remember our schooling days in mathematics and associate with a name called as Linear programming problems acronym as LPP. These are mathematical equations to link variables together to extract optimum results. One can set the key parameters such as price, dosage, availability, standards as variables with monetary profits as realistic outcomes. To give an example of LPP, let’s try this, for what combination of three machines A, B and C can work together with efficiency using each other’s limitations on different levels of time, use, power and accuracy to obtain an algorithm best suitable to manufacture maximum units of D in the least possible time, consuming least electricity and maintaining quality standards by reducing standard deviation. In layman terms it will give you a method of best utilization of available resources. So a matrix will enable us to use LPP, which are now-a-days coded in software’s that help in formulating feed.
So how does one calculate the
matrix of a feed additive? The answer is to run digestibility trials. These
trials evaluate the nutritional availability from the ingredient to the animal.
The availability can be further refined as in case of terms in energy as gross
energy, metabolizable energy and so on. The digestibility trials also are
needed to be refined on the basis of species, age, breed, sex and diet. A
mature broiler breeder will have an ability to digest nutrients from corn which
will be a different for a layer chick and a corn-soy diet with fishmeal will
have different matrix then a corn-soy-bran diet with lupins. Once individual
ingredient digestibility values are calculated the nutrional content can be
corrected with these fractions to determine their true potential in feed
formulations. Many phytogenic origin products have tried to replace certain
high cost matrix products in the feed. But very few have succeeded to relate
the plant sourced additive in terms of a compatible matrix value. The matrix
can be also formed on the basis of growth studies where ingredient for
ingredient replacement can be tested by using performance parameters. A
correlation graph can be utilized to compare the new ingredients which fit
better in an LPP for cost reduction with the old ones, falling short on the
price front or other long term frontiers. In case of certain additives like phytase
enzymes which result in mobilization phosphorus, the tibial ash content
comparisons are also used to form matrix.
An in vivo digestibility assay in
case of poultry ideally focuses of ileal sampling of digesta and deductively
analyzing the same with oral fed feed. The birds are sacrificed and digesta is
sampled at different levels of the gut to understand the digestibility of
ingredients. As ileum is the terminal region of the small intestine and
digestion is considered at its optimum here, the feed sampled in these zones is
used for developing a matrix. The fecal collection is generally contaminated
with renal excretions and is not considered as ideal to evaluate digestibility
of precision fed feed. The most accurate theoretical method to estimate digestibility
values is to use cecectomized roosters. Only few attempts to replicate the
digestive values in vitro are successful and are not as accurate as in vivo
methods. Most of the values tested in vitro were based on activity of enzymes
on a certain feed grain and do not replicate real time complexities of in vivo
Research is now moving to the
molecular level, and ultimately it is the nutrients that are utilized at a
cellular level that matter the most. Current digestibility studies focus on the
nutrients absorbed from the intestinal lumen to the blood, whereas growth
studies compare the net benefits from the additive. In the future our goal
should be a point of intersection between these two studies with molecular
markers used to light up our path to the least cost matrix for success.