Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro Emulsions in PoultryMicro emulsions in Poultry are dispersion’s of oil and water with an emulsifier. They are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures. They are super solvents which improves stability and thermodynamic activity of formulation. Micro emulsions are beneficial to be used because it increases efficacy of the formulation allowing dose reduction. The average particle size of micro emulsion is 0.1 micrometer which helps in increasing the inter facial area thereby allowing active ingredient to get released easily. In poultry, micro emulsions are designed to include natural essential oils cell wall which in turn binds to mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxosis.

Vinayak Ingredients have introduced micro emulsion which is an alternative to antibioticsnamed as Herbofloxin. It is of natural origin prepared from essential oil of syzygium, citronella, thymus, eucalyptus. Herbofloxin has a particle size less than 0.1 micrometer which makes it easily soluble in water. It maintains poultry gut’s pH-6.5 to 6.7 which is slightly acidic. As it is a micro emulsion it has better dispersion in water, stable at 45 degree Celsius temperature and has a longer shelf life. All these factors makes it safe to be consumed by poultry without having any side effects which are otherwise usually caused by using antibiotics. Herbofloxin is natural replacer for antibiotic growth promoters.

Mechanism of action: Herbofloxin being a micro emulsion when mixed with water forms nano emulsion due to which particle size decreases further making it easier to penetrate the bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. Disruption of cell wall leads to killing of bad bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Salmonella. Thus it acts like a bacteriostatic. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory by improving mucin coverage which is a first line of defence in poultry.

Herbofloxin as a micro emulsion replaces antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, amino glycosides and selectively modulates poultry gut to promote the beneficial microflora.

Neonatal Poultry Nutrition

Neonatal Poultry NutritionOver the last five decades improvements in nutrition and genetic selection have reduced the time required to produce a 2 Kg broiler within 1.7 FCR. The neonatal period is defined as the first seven days of the production cycle after hatch. It is a crucial time when the chick requires special management and nutrition. Efforts to control metabolic disorders such as ascites and leg problems have led to recommending early feed restriction during the first two weeks post-hatch. Thus, it is essential to know the effect of poultry management practices on subsequent chick development. A paper presented in the ohio university explains the importance of the relationship of neonatal nutrition to muscle development. Muscle growth and development can be divided into two distinct periods: hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

Hyperplasia is an embryonic period characterised by proliferation of muscle fiber number whereas hypertrophy is a post-hatch muscle growth which results in the enlargement of existing muscle fibers. Nutritional deprivation has a significant effect on the myoblast cells. Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of an immediate post-hatch feed restriction on breast muscle formation. The increased number of nuclei in muscle fibers correlates with increased synthesis of protein and muscle fiber size enlargement. Myoblast cells are extremely responsive to the mitogenic effects of their environment, including nutrition. A 42-day length of study conducted with feed restriction on the neonatal chickens showed a significant difference morphologically in the development and structure of the breast muscle between the feed restricted and unrestricted diet treatments. It also increased deposition of fat in the breast muscle of the birds with the 20% feed restriction.

Conclusion:

Nutrient deprivation in the first few days after hatch may interfere with normal muscle protein development in broiler chicks. However, if you believe that flavor and juiciness follow the fat, there may be some benefit from early feed restriction.

Effect of Protein and Amino Acids on Fat Deposition in Poultry

Effect of Protein and Amino Acids on Fat Deposition in PoultryThe abdominal fat tissue is very important in chickens due to its rapid growth as compared with other fat tissues. Most fatty acids are produced in the liver and stored as triglycerides in adipose tissues. Thus, the abdominal fat is a reliable parameter for estimating total body fat content as it directly correlates with the total lipid content in avian species. Nutritional factors play a key role in regulating body fat deposition. Therefore, this article discusses the effect of two such nutritional factors viz., protein and amino acids on the abdominal fat content and the mechanism of regulating abdominal fat deposition in poultry in a beneficial manner.

Protein is the most expensive component of poultry diets. The increase in the dietary protein content improves the daily weight gain, carcass yield, and meat quality by reducing body fat deposition and increasing protein content. A report shows that reducing dietary protein level during the starter, grower, and finisher phase, and compared with normal-protein diets as recommended by NRC, 1994 led to a significant increase in the abdominal fat content. An analogous study where increasing dietary protein level in the diets of broiler chickens in all three phases led to a significant reduction abdominal fat deposition compared with diets formulated according to NRC (1994) causing lean broiler chickens. Therefore, dietary protein content must play a direct or indirect role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. In 2002, it was found that reducing dietary protein content upregulates malic enzyme mRNA expression increases malic enzyme activity in the liver of broilers compared with the control, and vice versa. Further study also showed that increasing dietary protein content caused a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme mRNA expression in the livers of broiler chickens. Therefore, dietary protein level directly affects body fat deposition. Thus, it is important to suffice the protein requirements of birds to produce high-quality meat with low-fat deposition.

At present, only methionine, lysine, and arginine are known to beneficially regulate body fat deposition in poultry. Therefore, the addition of these amino acids in poultry diets should be ensured to prevent unnecessary fat deposition. Among these, methionine is the first limiting amino acid in poultry diet. It is essential amino acid as it directly affects on growth performance and helps in producing lean meat. A report shows that inclusion of L-methionine in poultry diet leads to a significant reduction in body fat content. The effect of dietary L-methionine in reducing the fat deposition may be associated with changes in lipolysis and lipogenesis. Lysine also has a prominent role in meat quality by increasing protein deposition, reducing the water-holding capacity, and enhancing muscle pH. The lysine supplementation in poultry diets significantly enhances lean meat production. A meat-type ducks fed with lysine-deficient diet gave significant high abdominal fat percentage while the inclusion of lysine eliminated this effect. Hence, addition of lysine in poultry diets promotes lean meat production by reducing carcass fatness via lipogenesis inhibition.

Another essential amino acid is the arginine which plays multiple roles in poultry production, implicated in reduction of carcass fat deposition. A study reports a significant reduction in the abdominal fat content in Japanese quails at 42 day of age 2.0% arginine supplementation at day zero of incubation. A corresponding study reported that providing 1.0% more arginine in addition to the NRC (1994) recommendations reduces the abdominal fat content by decreasing the activities of enzymes involved lipogenesis. In avian species, therefore, dietary L-arginine supplementation inhibits certain hepatic enzymes, which causes a reduction in the abdominal fat content by reducing the size of abdominal adipose cells.

Hence, the fat-reducing effects of protein and certain amino acids have not been fully clear. Thus this article makes an effort to elucidate our current understanding of the mechanism related to the effects of protein and amino acids that beneficially regulate abdominal fat deposition in poultry.

Bone Defects In Fast Growing Chicken

Bone Defects In Fast Growing ChickenBirds pertaining rapid growth and heavy body weight, are usually associated with a week skeletal body. This has been implicated in musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease in meat-type poultry. It does not always necessarily result in disease but many of the complications can be eliminated by slowing down the growth rate and research on this has produced contradictory results. Therefore it would be more correct to be called as metabolic disease, since most of these diseases are due to metabolic imbalances associated with rapid growth.

If the hypothesis that musculoskeletal deformity caused due to rapid growth is valid, then we must take into account how specific defects could be associated with rapid growth.

1) The defect may be due to increase in body weight.

2) The defect could occur because of undeveloped tissues (bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles).  This is because as the strong tissue is produced, remodelling and bone alignment would require more duration than rapid growth.

3) The defect could be related to high amino acid supplement, enzyme, hormone, or oxygen requirement by specialised cells.

4) The defect may be due to metabolic by-products such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid that are increased by rapid growth.

5) Rapidly dividing cells could be more prone to toxic or metabolic injury.

Most of the skeletal deformities in birds result in birds that are not able to walk. Birds in these cases find difficult to get feed and water due to chronic pain and anxiety associated with aggression from other birds.

Skeletal deformities can be caused in a variety of ways. Nutritional deficiencies are one of the causes in skeletal disease in all birds. Birds that are growing fast have higher requirement of essential amino acid supplement and have more skeletal defects than in slower growing strains. Mechanically induced or trauma-associated problems are also much more frequent in fast-growing broilers. These problems may be caused due to immaturity and weight than rapid growth because tissue becomes stronger and more resilient with age. This age-related effect is particularly true of bone, tendon, and ligament. Toxins in feed or water can cause skeletal deformities. Toxin effects are not usually associated with rapid growth, although rapidly growing birds would consume more of the offending product. Genetic problems may also result in skeletal defects, but not related to growth.

To conclude, prevention of musculoskeletal disease in chickens must be the goal, and attempts should be made to find management and nutritional techniques to reduce bone defects such as better lighting programs appear to improve broiler mobility and better methods of catching and transferring birds.

What is The Term Matrix Related to The Poultry Feed Industry?

Matrix Related To The Poultry Feed IndustryMatrix is a term people will generally relate to the Keanu Reeves; even google will present you with this as a first page result. However matrix in the feed analogy is more related to something mathematical. The words digestible nutrients of feed ingredients and matrix are generally used as synonyms. But matrix actually represents the nutrients available in the feed additive together with the nutrients spared or made available by use of the same additive in the feed formulation. It represents the total nutrition provided to the animal body directly or indirectly by affecting the digestibility of feed. So, what is the use of matrix? We all remember our schooling days in mathematics and associate with a name called as Linear programming problems acronym as LPP. These are mathematical equations to link variables together to extract optimum results. One can set the key parameters such as price, dosage, availability, standards as variables with monetary profits as realistic outcomes. To give an example of LPP, let’s try this, for what combination of three machines A, B and C can work together with efficiency using each others limitations on different levels of time, use, power and accuracy to obtain an algorithm best suitable to manufacture maximum units of D in the least possible time, consuming least electricity and maintaining quality standards by reducing standard deviation. In layman terms it will give you a method of best utilization of available resources. So a matrix will enable us to use LPP, which are now-a-days coded in software’s that help in formulating feed.

So how does one calculate the matrix of a feed additive? The answer is to run digestibility trials. These trials evaluate the nutritional availability from the ingredient to the animal. The availability can be further refined as in case of terms in energy as gross energy, metabolizable energy and so on. The digestibility trials also are needed to be refined on the basis of species, age, breed, sex and diet. A mature broiler breeder will have an ability to digest nutrients from corn which will be a different for a layer chick and a corn-soy diet with fish meal will have different matrix then a corn-soy-bran diet with lupins. Once individual ingredient digestibility values are calculated the nutritional content can be corrected with these fractions to determine their true potential in feed formulations. Many phytogenic origin products have tried to replace certain high cost matrix products in the feed. But very few have succeeded to relate the plant sourced additive in terms of a compatible matrix value. The matrix can be also formed on the basis of growth studies where ingredient for ingredient replacement can be tested by using performance parameters. A correlation graph can be utilised to compare the new ingredients which fit better in an LPP for cost reduction with the old ones, falling short on the price front or other long term frontiers. In case of certain additives like phytase enzymes which result in mobilization phosphorus, the tibial ash content comparisons are also used to form matrix.

An in vivo digestibility assay in case of poultry ideally focuses of ileal sampling of digesta and deductively analysing the same with oral fed feed. The birds are sacrificed and digesta is sampled at different levels of the gut to understand the digestibility of ingredients. As ileum is the terminal region of the small intestine and digestion is considered at its optimum here, the feed sampled in these zones is used for developing a matrix. The fecal collection is generally contaminated with renal excretions and is not considered as ideal to evaluate digestibility of precision fed feed. The most accurate theoretical method to estimate digestibility values is to use cecectomized roosters. Only few attempts to replicate the digestive values in vitro are successful and are not as accurate as in vivo methods. Most of the values tested in vitro were based on activity of enzymes on a certain feed grain and do not replicate real time complexities of in vivo trials.

Research is now moving to the molecular level, and ultimately it is the nutrients that are utilised at a cellular level that matter the most. Current digestibility studies focus on the nutrients absorbed from the intestinal lumen to the blood, whereas growth studies compare the net benefits from the additive. In the future our goal should be a point of intersection between these two studies with molecular markers used to light up our path to the least cost matrix for success.

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

We all know amino acids are building blocks of life. The application of amino acids in feed industry has been since four decades. Amino acids for feed now play key role in improving the efficiency of protein utilisation in animal feeding. Among others, let’s discuss DL-Methionine since it’s the first limiting amino acid, followed by L-Lysine and L-Threonine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid required by poultry in sufficient amount for optimum body weight gain or egg production. Deficiency of methionine therefore causes retarded growth in broilers and reduced egg production in layers. On the other hand, surplus of methionine has been associated with atherosclerosis. Methionine is also a major constituent in feather formation. Its deficiency leads to poor feather growth and rise in the feather pecking in order to obtain adequate methionine. This behaviour can lead to cannibalism among the flocks. This could be the worst nightmare ever possible to farmers. To our rescue, synthetic DL-Methionine began finding its way into poultry industry since late 1950s. Till now broiler requirements are been met by the use of synthetic methionine since it’s affordable to the farmers. By now we can sense that how adverse effect can DL-methionine have on chickens.

The question that comes to our mind is- How safe is synthetic Methionine to poultry?

To answer this, we first need to know little background chemistry about DL-Methionine. DL-methionine contains two isomers L-form and its mirror image D-form in equal ratios. However, only L-methionine can be utilized to synthesizer protein. The second half D-methionine first needs to be converted to L form and then it’s available to use. To our surprise, D-methionine is not converted completely but around 90% in chickens. So what happens to the rest of the 10%? So if you learnt what happens in calves, it seems that it may result in elevated plasma methionine, then it could be evident that traces of DL-methionine can be found in the carcasses of Methionine fed broilers. (J. P. Felix D’Mello, Amino acids in animal nutrition, CABI publishing, UK).

Poultry methionine requirements have always been into controversies. It has been heavily criticized for the use of synthetic amino acid in the feed to increase the bird growth rather than its health. Moreover, synthetic methionine disturbs the whole system of nitrogen cycle in the poultry. This has led to the prohibition on the use of synthetic methionine in animal feed formulation by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.

But not forgetting that a well balanced dietary protein and amino acids for poultry is a high priority issue among nutritionists for various reasons. First, cost of proteins and individual amino acids can be expensive nutrients in feed per unit weight. The price fluctuation of DL-Methionine and supply chain discrepancies result is massive shift of feed prices and reduces your profit. Therefore, selecting the appropriate level of amino acids becomes your critical economic decision. You will reach this goal only if you are dosing your methionine correctly. Inconsistency can never be avoided in an industry where raw materials are heavily applied. Therefore whatever you add in your feed diet, will surely affect your main objective. Therefore, addition of supplemental methionine in feed formulation requires precision. Second, the environmental pollution issues about nitrogen excretion from the poultry farming which can cause pollution of soil, air and water. A study shows that one percent reduction of crude protein in a diet can yield 8 to 10% reduction of nitrogen excretion. Hence it can be said that 3 to 4% reduction of crude protein with supplementation of first, second and third limiting amino acids can yield same growth performance with 30 to 40% reduction of nitrogen emission. And third, poor quality dietary proteins and amino acids can have major negative impact in heat stress conditions which is because of inefficient amino acid digestibility.

Well, many of the scientists are in constant discovery or invention to combat these hurdles. Moritz along with its colleagues in its article explains the use of feed restriction to increase commercial broiler forage intake. Thus, the plant material consumed along with any insects if available can be sufficient to obtain methionine. To read more see (Moritz, J. S., A. S. Parsons, N. P. Buchanan, N. J. Baker, J. Jaczynski, O. J. Gekara and W. B. Bryan. 2005. Synthetic methionine and feed restriction effects on performance and meat quality of organically reared broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14:521–535). However, the availability of the methionine solely depends on the forage composition and its management. Also providing large scale flocks with quality pasture would be difficult. In addition, the forage quality and quantity will differ significantly time to time.

Halder and Roy have compared the performance of broilers between no added methionine group, synthetic methionine fed group and herbal derived methionine group (Halder, G. and B. Roy, 2007. Effect of herbal or synthetic methionine on performance, cost benefit ratio, meat and feather quality of broiler chicken. Int. J. Agric. Res., 2: 987-996). The results show that liver triglycerides in methionine fed group were evidently high in contrast to herbal derived methionine group. Overall performance in both methionine-supplemented groups was found similar (higher than the methionine deficient group). However, the quality of the protein makes it difficult in digestibility in the intestine.

To summarise, there is still no proper way out to this crisis. Remember, Science is never done, it’s always changing. The goal of science is to devise framework, to describe how things works together, to study things are right now so that we can predict how things will be in the future. And so if we learn to trust science in all its fuzziness and incompleteness, it can prove to be best tool to find solution to these problems. After all, animal welfare, managing food safety and environmental issues are our major concerns.

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility

Kifay, the natural amino acid optimiser is the product to watch as it has the capability to enhance the ileal amino acid digestibility due to the specific natural ingredients in its composition.

Amino acid supplementation in poultry is considered as an essential part of poultry nutrition. Methionine is the first limiting amino acid in poultry important for optimum growth, feed conversion and immunity. The protein nutrition is directly related to the illeal amino acid digestibility; this term can be divided further into apparent illeal amino acid digestibility or true amino acid digestibility.

The debate is already on as to what type of digestibility is to be considered while making a feed formulation; although it is undeniable that digestibility of protein is utmost important and all digestible amino acid systems are superior to use of total amino acid system in feed formulation.

The amino acids contained in feed-stuffs are not fully available to animal. It is therefore more efficient to formulate diets using values for digestible amino acids rather than total amino acids. The optimisation of amino acid supply leads to increased animal performance and, because the ingested protein is better balanced for animal’s requirements, nitrogen excretion is reduced.