Depending on different ventilation requirements, ventilation systems are generally divided into two types:
1) Natural Air Flow System
2) Mechanical Air Movement (Fans)
Sometimes it is also combined to provide comfort to the chickens.
• Natural Air Flow System:
Ventilated shelters must be exposed to the wind, so place the building on a high site rather than in a low place at least 100 feet away from the side where the prevailing wind enters the building.
i) Winter Ventilation: Systems for cold weather are much more complicated than in warm weather because houses must be closed tightly for comfort and to conserve energy. Tight enclosures trap the gases, odors, humidity, etc. That must be dealt with continuously for the health of the birds.
ii) Summer Ventilation: A natural air system is used for warm weather conditions in houses with side curtains. This system uses temperature differences and natural air movement to remove excess heat and moisture, and to supply oxygen.
• Mechanical Ventilation System:
Mechanical air movement is required to properly ventilate a house in all extreme climatic conditions. They can be divided into two distinct types:
(1) Negative pressure
(2) Positive pressure
i) Negative (Exhaust) System: In the negative pressure system, fans are arranged to expel air from the building.
ii) Positive Pressure System: A positive pressure system uses fans to push air into the building and create a positive pressure.
Ventilation is one of the most widely recognised difficulties confronting broiler growers in both routine and closed-environment lodging. Ventilation systems are intended to naturally deal with this environment for poultry, particularly amid the brooding period. Whether you utilise a passage or cross-ventilation system or a blend of both, ventilation is important to make the ideal environment that birds need to develop and create during every phase of life.
A key prerequisite of any base ventilation system is to take care of the oxygen demand of the cutting edge poultry bird and to guarantee great conveyance of outside air all through the poultry house. Oxygen is required for both the generation of warm body and digestion system of supplements fundamental for development. In the first week, the carbon dioxide is principally delivered by the ignition of LPG and from the chicks themselves. A chick’s respiratory system is at close full limit at comfort temperature. As temperature drops in the environment, the chick must devour extensively more elevated amounts of oxygen to stay agreeable. Ventilation systems evacuate carbon dioxide and supply chicks with the oxygen they have to create healthy cardiovascular system and to anticipate issues, for example, ascites, which can occur if demand for oxygen increases by just five percent.
Today’s present day broiler consumes almost twice as much water at 28 days than they did two-and-a- half decades ago. Around 75 percent of the water consumed daily is discharged as water vapour from the respiratory system or precipitated alongside the droppings as dampness in the poultry litter. Chicks are not thermo-competent until 14 days of age and along these lines depend on supplementary warmth to keep them warm. During the initial seven days, chicks will more than fourfold their body weight. This is the main chance to accomplish such development in a single week. Keeping chicks warm and guaranteeing sufficient supplementary food, access to crisp water and great least ventilation are essential variables for deciding a herd’s general execution.
In hot summer climate shed infrastructure becomes important in guaranteeing ideal airflow for the cooling and solace of the birds. However when outlining an advanced broiler house the needs are very frequently determined by the requirement for quick returns. The poultry farmer empowers feed utilisation from the minute the chicks land on the farm, with the most critical initial seven days. The other most difficult period, particularly in summer, is following 25 days when birds are completely feathered and hot conditions will challenge feed consumption.
The greatest challenge for houses longer than 120 meters is keeping up a satisfactory temperature get from the front to the back of the house. The level of birds comfort at last drives day by day encourage utilisation and even temperature dissemination will guarantee uniform food admission and uniform processing weights.
The amount that the air in a house warms up depends fundamentally on three components:
- Metabolic heat produced by the ovens;
- How rapidly the air in the house is exchanged; and
- Thermal properties of the house.
The transition ventilation framework assumes a basic part in temperature administration during brooding at day 21. It guarantees productive air exchange and temperature administration without making excessive air movement at chick level. Until birds develop completely, they are exceptionally sensitive to air movement, which impacts feed consumption. The faster the air exchange rate, the cooler a house will be. However, a decent air exchange capacity alone won’t ensure bird comfort. Air is required to expel sensible heat created by the broilers. Most houses are outfitted with an evaporation cooling framework, intended to keep the approaching air temperature below 29°C. Dropping temperature with an evaporating cooling system expands humidity in the house, diminishing the birds’ ability to discharge heat. By far the most critical contributor to birds comfort is air speed.
Future key design choices will rotate around accomplishing the real potential at most reduced working expenses. Later on power expenses will be the best patron to general operational expenses. One’s decision of passage fan will by far be the most vital choice.
Nitrogen is highly found in animal excreta and can exist in various forms. One such form is “Ammonia”. Primarily ammonia is a result of breakdown of urea present in urine of birds by the enzymes; urease and uricase. It is a potential source to create bad odour and negatively impact air and water quality and animal as well as human health. Presence of ammonia above 25ppm in the poultry house can damage the respiratory system of the birds and also there is a reduction in immune system; leading to declining flock health and performance. In addition to the effects on bird’s health, ammonia has significant hazardous effect on the caretakers and to the environmental ecology.
High levels of ammonia emission inside the poultry house have also become a cause of concern for the atmosphere outside the poultry house. Therefore there is a great need to develop strategies to reduce ammonia formation, volatilization, or downwind transmission of ammonia after it is volatilised from the poultry manure to minimise the harmful effects of ammonia on animal and human health as well as the environment.
Keeping this in mind and with a view to develop ‘ammonia- free ‘and organic environment for all, Vinayak Ingredients have launched a product with a brand name “KiFAY” which is a blend of various herbal extracts in a diatomaceous carrier which acts as a DL-Methionine replacer and a nutritional feed additive and goes directly into the feed and acts as an amino acid optimiser and improves the apparent ileal digestibility of the feed and hence improves the protein turnover this also reduces the amount of amino acid degradation by the liver and excretion by kidney which form the major part of nitrogen compounds excreted by poultry. In turn these compounds are also responsible for ammonia and smell in the poultry house, apart from posing stressors for liver and kidney.
Vinayak Ingredients have also launched a Bio-security product which combats the remaining ammonia emission in the droppings of the birds which acts as a litter amendment system under the brand name of “ESSENTIOLITT-POULTRY”. Essentiolitt poultry is an ammonia binder and has bactericidal action on urease and uricase enzymes and inhibit the ammonia formation by increasing 45% nitrogen retention and ammonia emission.