Is It Necessary To Premix?

Is It Necessary To Premix in livestock feedA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilise the coefficient of variety (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterised as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal get no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) ought to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices covers covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix: Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturised scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entrainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effectively and proficiently by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement: This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blend. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilised as carriers. Be that as it may, the adsorptive properties of ground grain and oil seed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed: Finished feed might be prepared as follows: 1) include the grain portion of the diet to the blender; 2) add the dry supplement  to the centre of the blender (if possible, include supplement the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released); 3) permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute; 4) add forage part of the diet; 5) add fat segment of the diet; 6) add molasses of the diet; 7) permit to blend for the time determined for the blender.

4) Adding Molasses: Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses is especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degree Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing

Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel to the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of crossed contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that affect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from supplier.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of methodology followed to guarantee quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and the Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program— are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro Emulsions in PoultryMicro emulsions in Poultry are dispersion’s of oil and water with an emulsifier. They are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures. They are super solvents which improves stability and thermodynamic activity of formulation. Micro emulsions are beneficial to be used because it increases efficacy of the formulation allowing dose reduction. The average particle size of micro emulsion is 0.1 micrometer which helps in increasing the inter facial area thereby allowing active ingredient to get released easily. In poultry, micro emulsions are designed to include natural essential oils cell wall which in turn binds to mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxosis.

Vinayak Ingredients have introduced micro emulsion which is an alternative to antibioticsnamed as Herbofloxin. It is of natural origin prepared from essential oil of syzygium, citronella, thymus, eucalyptus. Herbofloxin has a particle size less than 0.1 micrometer which makes it easily soluble in water. It maintains poultry gut’s pH-6.5 to 6.7 which is slightly acidic. As it is a micro emulsion it has better dispersion in water, stable at 45 degree Celsius temperature and has a longer shelf life. All these factors makes it safe to be consumed by poultry without having any side effects which are otherwise usually caused by using antibiotics. Herbofloxin is natural replacer for antibiotic growth promoters.

Mechanism of action: Herbofloxin being a micro emulsion when mixed with water forms nano emulsion due to which particle size decreases further making it easier to penetrate the bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. Disruption of cell wall leads to killing of bad bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Salmonella. Thus it acts like a bacteriostatic. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory by improving mucin coverage which is a first line of defence in poultry.

Herbofloxin as a micro emulsion replaces antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, amino glycosides and selectively modulates poultry gut to promote the beneficial microflora.

Changing Trends in Antibiotic Use in the Poultry Industry

Changing Trends in Antibiotic Use in the Poultry IndustryA major feature of poultry production nowadays is the reduction of in use of antibiotics as growth promoters, and this is majorly due to concerns over bacterial resistance.

Antibiotics used in a widespread manner as a feed additive can lead to development of Bacterial resistance as the residual antibiotics in the tissues of poultry can be consumed by humans. The bacteria resistant to antimicrobials may also get transferred from one individual to another individual leading to reduced performance of antimicrobials in humans.  This prompted the WHO in 1997 and the Economic and Social Committee of the European Union in 1998 to conclude that the use of antimicrobials in poultry could be a possible risk for the general health and well being of humans.

Many organisations are focusing their research on the development of alternative strategies to maintain the gut health of poultry and enhance performance of poultry by using various other substances, commonly known as natural growth promoters (NGPs). These Natural Growth Promoters have been identified as effective alternatives to antibiotics. A good popularity has been gained by Phytobiotics as NGPs especially, due to their beneficial effect on gut health, performance of birds and positive effects on the immunity of the bird.

Phytobiotics can be defined as plant derived products added to feed in order to improve performance. They originate from leaves, roots, tubers or fruits of herbs, spices and other plants. Phytobiotics are basically of plant origin, and popular extracts that are gaining interest among researchers and poultry producers are thyme, oregano, turmeric and garlic.

Keeping in mind the changing trends in the market, Vinayak Ingredients launched a natural growth promoter by the brand name Herbofloxin. Herbofloxin maintains the health of the gut and as an alternative to antibiotics. It has phyto-constituents of antibacterial nature that target the gut pathogens including important zoonotic bacteria. As a result, Herbofloxin promotes the growth of commensals.

Herbofloxin provides immune-modulator effect which improves tolerance to pathogenic bacteria and improves gastrointestinal micro-climate so as to improve the digestibility and uptake of nutrients. All these results almost nullify the requirement of antibiotics making it as an effective natural antimicrobial growth promoter.

Gut Inflammatory Status in Poultry

Gut Inflammatory Status in PoultryThe gastrointestinal tract is the most exposed surface in the body and many diseases are largely related to the gut health status of the broiler. It is an important organ system as poor gut health results in poor nutrient assimilation. Some bacteria play an important role in helping broilers digest feed. Feed constituents affect the viscosity of the gastric content which helps in the development of small intestine micro-biota.  Any significant fluctuation in number or type of commensal leads to diarrhea which may cause severe damage to the intestine ultimately leading to poor performance and diseased birds. Dysbiosis that outnumbers good bacteria for which bad bacteria are then able exert their undesirable effects on the gut lining. Thus, to maintain good health and welfare farmers should focus on the integrity of the intestinal system.

Many causes lead to the loss of intestinal integrity such as:

  • Immuno-suppression: This can be caused due to viral diseases, vaccination or some disease challenges.
  • Antimicrobial activity: The use of antimicrobial growth promoters affect on bacteria can affect the natural micro flora of the intestine.
  • Environmental factors: Many clostridial spores or coccidia can persist despite harsh environmental conditions may gain infectivity later under favourable conditions.
  • Feed factors: Correct formulation of the diets plays critical role. Some of the ingredients such as enzyme incorrectly mixed or applied can have devastating consequences to intestinal integrity.
  • Water: Adequate supply of clean potable water is a norm. Any deviation in water quality has a direct effect on gut.

Disturbance in the intestinal integrity may affect health status and overall performance of birds in poultry production. Strategies such as prevention programs towards infectious disease and using alternatives to antibiotic are advisable replacing the existing chemical antibiotic to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

Antibiotics in feed for poultry-do we need them?

Antibiotics in feed for poultryThere is constant race for better meat yielding animals. As the grain costs increase on an annual basis, the drag co-efficient for the poultry industry has hit a new high. The need for cheap and not necessarily good quality raw materials is more than it ever was. As the nutritional basis for animal feed switches from cost effective to effective cost, there is need for the farmer to be more stringent in choosing the right feed formulation to meet rising demand for meat and eggs. While some choose to be eccentric and follow the all organic approach, more than 70 % of the farms choose to be otherwise. As the health of the bird becomes secondary especially in a short 28 day period, the drive for production is main reason for the advent of antibiotic use in animal feed in the 20th century with the intention to reduce mortality and improve weight gain. As antibiotics gained popularity, the heritage of newly discovered antibiotics passed quickly from human to animal use.

The approach towards poultry and other livestock used for food production has to be of a preventive medicine. The use of antibiotics for this purpose blurred the line between treatment and prevention. Let’s take some time to understand this briefly,  for human medicine, population medicine is individualistic, especially in case of microbial disease, whereas in case of poultry there is a close association between the birds in the house where it is always a sub population we intend to treat or prevent disease in. Using preventive medicine tools directs here to understand the trends and predict outcomes. We always try to go one better by improving bio security and management practices, so that we affix our outcomes of clean bird production.  Once we start using substances that kill micro-flora we are already invading the population by measures labelled as preventive, but actually treating a problem, so be it at a micro-scale. This so called preventive use of antibiotics in feed treats every birds differently, where in human medicine we consider parenteral as the route of choice for maximum efficacy, feeding birds orally forms one barrier, apart from not discussing how much one bird will consume and how often. Now we come to a question very recently asked by the pro –antibiotics lobby, how antibiotics used for the animal use and human use being different, have a chance to produce antibiotic resistance that is significant for human medicine. To put my point clearly below is a table published in one report that demarks different categories of antibiotics with respect to their in animal or in human use.

This report says as reported by FDA, but actually is an adaptation from the report and the table is not present in the original FDA version.

Even if we consider that the categories are different for human and animal use, how one ensures that antibiotics working on certain targets as cell wall or cell division are going to discriminate the categories. We are not even sure that how low dose of certain one category of antibiotics affects the cross development of antibiotic resistance.

So, where do we go from here, do we use antibiotics or not? Let’s now focus on what can be done.

We can list how we can collectively reduce antibiotics,

  1. Treat Invitro

This implies to enhancing the biosecurity measures in all inputs for the birds. Using safe, natural alternatives in these zones which include the water source, litter, House and feed. Using disinfectants of natural origin in these zones kill the microbes where they are most vulnerable that is outside the bird body.

  1. Focus on nutrition

Use bio-availability scales to improve the nutrition supply to the birds. Healthy birds survive on the accord on their own immunity and natural barriers. Remember the host also in the infection trilogy of pathogen, host and environment interaction.

  1. Clean processed birds for sale

The importance of slaughter house disinfection should not be lost. This is the last step that the producer can really control its quality of carcass. Using non-residual agents for cleansing of carcass.

  1. Gut is where all the action is

Improving gut flora results in better good micro flora dominance in the intestine. Additives that improve all supporting structures which enhance the micro climate for gut will improve gut associated lymphoid tissue and results in improved immunity and absorption. Gut health enhancement also reduces chances of pathogens passing into the blood and other vital organs. Reducing the endogenous losses from gut will also enhance amino acid turn-over in poultry.

Efforts should be made to cull such trends when they originate and the poultry industry should keep an open mind towards use of alternatives to antibiotics, as it would take some withdrawal time to wean off these dependencies.

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin is our answer to the long standing problem of antibiotic inclusions in feed and water of livestock. It is a unique micro emulsified formulation of phytoactive ingredients working as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal solutions for monogastric organisms.

Herbofloxin eliminates chemicals such as, water sanitizers, pH regulators, feed disinfectants and antibiotics from Livestock production. It improves gut immune barriers to resist colonization by pathological microflora. Herbofloxin is a complete solution for providing a barrier against infective agents and safeguards the entry of zoonotic organisms in the food chain. Herbofloxin reduces gut colonization by E.coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter and thus reducing the zoonosis of the same in the meat. It is a growth promoter resulting in healthy weight gain.