Biofilm Management In Poultry

Biofilm Management In Poultry

Water is essential in controlling body temperature, supports the immune system, assist in food digestion, and aids in the processing and elimination of body wastes. Regardless of procurement of water, another concern is contamination of water inside the watering systems through a substance called “BIOFILM. It occurs when bacteria attach to the pipe walls in a drinking system, creating a sticky substrate.

Biofilms are commonly defined as attached bacterial colonies of either single or multiple species, encased in an extracellular matrix.

Biofilms support the survival of bacteria in suboptimal conditions and increase resistance to disinfectants, antimicrobial, and antibiotics. To date, it is estimated that 99% of bacteria can grow in biofilms, and it is suggested that for the majority of bacteria, biofilms are the normal mode of existence.

Plant essential oils like Thyme, Eucalyptol, Clove, Citronella, etc. Have been used for hundreds of years as natural medicines to combat a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Several essential oils confer antimicrobial activity by damaging the cell wall and membrane, leading to cell lysis, leakage of cell contents, and inhibition of proton motive force.  In addition, there is evidence that they effectively kill bacteria without promoting the acquisition of resistance.

A blend of all such essential oils is HERBOFLOXIN”-This micro emulsified system;

  • The target zone for Herbofloxin is the gut; it has an antimicrobial effect in the gut due to which there is no biofilm formation.
  • It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria. This action of Herbofloxin in turn provides a natural growth promoter effect in Poultry.
  • Herbofloxin is freely soluble in water and target species include Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter and Clostridium

5 Tips To Combat Bio Aerosols In Poultry

Combat Bio Aerosols In PoultryAerial pollutants in confined animal houses are widely recognized as detrimental to the respiratory health of animals kept in these facilities. Primary and opportunistic microbial pathogens may directly cause infectious and allergic diseases in farm animals, and chronic exposure to some types of aerial pollutants may exacerbate multi-factorial environmental diseases. The key pollutants recognized in the airspace of livestock buildings are particles, including dust, micro-organisms and their toxins, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and more than 100 trace gases such as volatile fatty acids. Under commercial production conditions the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources, with bacteria, toxins, gases and volatile organic compounds adsorbed to them. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol. Their sizes can range from aerodynamic diameters of 0.5 to 100 µm.

How are bio-aerosols formed?

Under commercial production the airborne particles will contain a mixture of biological material from a range of sources. The chickens produce large amounts of dust as a result of epithelial desquamation, as well as from feed, manure, faeces and litter (Matković et al., 2009). This dust consists of a variety of airborne particles of biological origin, i.e. Bacteria, fungi, endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, 1.3-beta-glucan of fungi, fungal spores and mycelium fragments. Hence, a more descriptive term for these airborne particles is bio-aerosol in which the microorganisms can occur either as liquid droplets or as dry particles.

To prevent this problem in poultry, Vinayak Ingredients has introduced a very effective product called “ESSENTIOLITT POULTRY”. Essentiolitt Poultry is a blend of essential oils which works as a poultry sanitizer and reduces the formation of Bio-aerosols. Its features are as below:

  1. 50% reduced respiratory diseases.
  2. It posses potential as natural agents for airborne bacterial activity inhibitors.
  3. They are ecological products for insect pest control.
  4. Reduction in mortality of birds due to severe respiratory problems.
  5. It is acting as a Bio-security in Farms.

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds

Dimension of Water for Poultry Birds - Vinayak IngredientsWater management is the most critical components in a top-performing broiler flock. In high performing flocks, at around 21˚C, cutting edge broilers by and large will consume 1.8 to 2 times more water than feed, in weight. Water consumption will change, contingent upon ecological temperature, feed quality and bird health:

  1. Water consumption increases by 6% for each expansion in 1˚C between 20-32°C.
  2. Water consumption increases by 5% for each expansion in 1˚C between 32-38°C.
  3. Feed consumption diminishes by 1.23% for each expansion in 1˚C over 20°C.

Any considerable change in water utilization should be researched as this may show a water leak, health issues or feed problem. A drop in water consumption is frequently the primary marker of a flock issue. To assess flock performance legitimately we have to know how much water birds are consuming each day.

Large portions of today’s high performance broilers are being brought up in housing built for the broiler of the past. There are numerous alternatives used to guarantee a water volume/stream will address bird issues at high pinnacle request times. Advanced water meters associated with the house controller can screen water consumption on a 24-hour premise as well as in distributed time increases amid the day. This data can figure out whether our water system is keeping up at basic ‘appeal’ times, as when the lights go ahead after a dull period. Knowing this can be extremely useful in finding performance issues on a ranch, particularly one with huge, multi-houses.

The temperature of the water that birds are drinking should also be considered. The perfect water temperature ought to associate with 10-14˚C originating from the source. Water consumed by the birds should not be over 30˚C. In the event that this happens the drinking system ought to be flushed intermittently to look after cooler, fresher water.

Along with temperature and accessibility the quality of water offered to chickens should be considered for proper growth of Broilers. The quality of water depends on several factors such as the presence of bacteria and other microbes, PH, Level of minerals etc. Disinfectants like Chlorine are widely used in the poultry industry for disinfection of water, but it has many disadvantages such as carcinogenicity, pH dependent activity, highly corrosive and irritating substance. To avoid such problems and to improve performance of broilers Vinayak ingredients has launched an excellent product Herbofloxin which is a blend of essential oils effective as Non- antibiotic growth promoter. It is used to replace disinfectants, antibiotics and acidifier used for growth promotion in water.

MOA of Herbofloxin: – It is a micro emulsion when mixed with a water forms nanoemulsion making it easier to penetrate bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. It is stable at 5 to 45 degree Celsius temperature and has long shelf life.

The advantages of Herbofloxin are as follows:-

  • More than 10% improvement in weight gain
  • Chlorine free meat
  • Pathogen free meat
  • No antibiotic residue
  • Carcass sanitizer
  • Litter improver

Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro Emulsions in PoultryMicro emulsions in Poultry are dispersion’s of oil and water with an emulsifier. They are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures. They are super solvents which improves stability and thermodynamic activity of formulation. Micro emulsions are beneficial to be used because it increases the efficacy of the formulation allowing dose reduction. The average particle size of micro emulsion is 0.1 micrometers which helps in increasing the inter facial area, thereby allowing active ingredients to get released easily. In poultry, micro emulsions are designed to include natural essential oils cell wall which in turn binds to mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxosis.

Vinayak Ingredients have introduced micro emulsion which is an alternative to antibioticsnamed as Herbofloxin. It is of natural origin prepared from essential oil of syzygium, citronella, thymus, eucalyptus. Herbofloxin has a particle size less than 0.1 micrometer which makes it easily soluble in water. It maintains poultry gut’s pH-6.5 to 6.7 which is slightly acidic. As it is a micro emulsion it has better dispersion in water, stable at 45 degree Celsius temperature and has a longer shelf life. All these factors make it safe to be consumed by poultry without having any side effects which are otherwise usually caused by using antibiotics. Herbofloxin is the natural replacer for antibiotic growth promoters.

Mechanism of action: Herbofloxin being a micro emulsion when mixed with water forms nano emulsion due to which particle size decreases further, making it easier to penetrate the bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. Disruption of cell wall leads to killing of bad bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Salmonella. Thus, it acts like a bacteriostatic. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory by improving mucin coverage, which is a first line of defense in poultry.

Herbofloxin as a micro emulsion replaces antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, amino glycosides and selectively modulates poultry gut to promote the beneficial microflora.

Gut Inflammatory Status in Poultry

Gut Inflammatory Status in Poultry - Vinayak IngredientsThe gastrointestinal tract is the most exposed surface in the body and many diseases are largely related to the poultry gut health status of the chicken (broiler). It is an important organ system as poor gut health results in poor nutrient assimilation. Some bacteria play an important role in helping broilers digest feed. Feed constituents affect the viscosity of the gastric content which helps in the development of small intestine micro-biota.  Any significant fluctuation in number or type of commensal leads to diarrhea which may cause severe damage to the intestine ultimately leading to poor performance and diseased birds. Dysbiosis that outnumbers good bacteria for which bad bacteria are then able exert their undesirable effects on the gut lining. Thus, to maintain good health and welfare farmers should focus on the integrity of the intestinal system.

Many causes lead to the loss of intestinal integrity such as:

  • Immuno-suppression: This can be caused due to viral diseases, vaccination or some disease challenges.
  • Antimicrobial activity: The use of antimicrobial growth promoters affect on bacteria can affect the natural micro flora of the intestine.
  • Environmental factors: Many clostridial spores or coccidia can persist despite harsh environmental conditions may gain infectivity later under favourable conditions.
  • Feed factors: Correct formulation of the diets plays critical role. Some of the ingredients such as enzyme incorrectly mixed or applied can have devastating consequences to intestinal integrity.
  • Water: Adequate supply of clean potable water is a norm. Any deviation in water quality has a direct effect on gut.

Disturbance in the intestinal integrity may affect health status and overall performance of birds in poultry production. Strategies such as prevention programs towards infectious disease and using alternatives to antibiotic are advisable replacing the existing chemical antibiotic to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

Antibiotics in feed for poultry-do we need them?

Antibiotics in feed for poultry - Vinayak IngredientsThere is constant race for better meat yielding animals. As the grain costs increase on an annual basis, the drag co-efficient for the poultry industry has hit a new high. The need for cheap and not necessarily good quality raw materials is more than it ever was. As the nutritional basis for animal feed switches from cost effective to effective cost, there is need for the farmer to be more stringent in choosing the right feed formulation to meet rising demand for meat and eggs. While some choose to be eccentric and follow the all organic approach, more than 70 % of the farms choose to be otherwise. As the health of the bird becomes secondary especially in a short 28 day period, the drive for production is main reason for the advent of antibiotic use in animal feed in the 20th century with the intention to reduce mortality and improve weight gain. As antibiotics gained popularity, the heritage of newly discovered antibiotics passed quickly from human to animal use.

The approach towards poultry and other livestock used for food production has to be of a preventive medicine. The use of antibiotics for this purpose blurred the line between treatment and prevention. Let’s take some time to understand this briefly,  for human medicine, population medicine is individualistic, especially in case of microbial disease, whereas in case of poultry there is a close association between the birds in the house where it is always a sub population we intend to treat or prevent disease in. Using preventive medicine tools directs here to understand the trends and predict outcomes. We always try to go one better by improving bio security and management practices, so that we affix our outcomes of clean bird production.  Once we start using substances that kill micro-flora we are already invading the population by measures labelled as preventive, but actually treating a problem, so be it at a micro-scale. This so called preventive use of antibiotics in feed treats every birds differently, where in human medicine we consider parenteral as the route of choice for maximum efficacy, feeding birds orally forms one barrier, apart from not discussing how much one bird will consume and how often. Now we come to a question very recently asked by the pro –antibiotics lobby, how antibiotics used for the animal use and human use being different, have a chance to produce antibiotic resistance that is significant for human medicine. To put my point clearly below is a table published in one report that demarks different categories of antibiotics with respect to their in animal or in human use.

This report says as reported by FDA, but actually is an adaptation from the report and the table is not present in the original FDA version.

Even if we consider that the categories are different for human and animal use, how one ensures that antibiotics working on certain targets as cell wall or cell division are going to discriminate the categories. We are not even sure that how low dose of certain one category of antibiotics affects the cross development of antibiotic resistance.

So, where do we go from here, do we use antibiotics or not? Let’s now focus on what can be done.

We can list how we can collectively reduce antibiotics,

  1. Treat Invitro

This implies to enhancing the biosecurity measures in all inputs for the birds. Using safe, natural alternatives in these zones which include the water source, litter, House and feed. Using disinfectants of natural origin in these zones kill the microbes where they are most vulnerable that is outside the bird body.

  1. Focus on nutrition

Use bio-availability scales to improve the nutrition supply to the birds. Healthy birds survive on the accord on their own immunity and natural barriers. Remember the host also in the infection trilogy of pathogen, host and environment interaction.

  1. Clean processed birds for sale

The importance of slaughter house disinfection should not be lost. This is the last step that the producer can really control its quality of carcass. Using non-residual agents for cleansing of carcass.

  1. Gut is where all the action is

Improving gut flora results in better good micro flora dominance in the intestine. Additives that improve all supporting structures which enhance the micro climate for gut will improve gut associated lymphoid tissue and results in improved immunity and absorption. Gut health enhancement also reduces chances of pathogens passing into the blood and other vital organs. Reducing the endogenous losses from gut will also enhance amino acid turn-over in poultry.

Efforts should be made to cull such trends when they originate and the poultry industry should keep an open mind towards use of alternatives to antibiotics, as it would take some withdrawal time to wean off these dependencies.

Anti Antibiotics – The Way Ahead

Anti Antibiotics – The Way Ahead - Vinayak Ingredients

For years together Livestock

Livestock is commonly described as domesticated animals which are raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor works and commodities such as eggs, meat, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

Livestock has been an inseparable part of humanity. The cheapest and most readily available source of protein.

The methods of livestock rearing (livestock farming)  have evolved in leaps

This is clearly evident in the case of the poultry industry. The word broiler is now taken as Cobb or Ross and to keep up with the protein deficit of the world new strains are being introduced to cultivate meat faster and in an efficient way.

In this process several mechanisms have been devised to improve the bird, the environment or the final product. This introduces us to the fields of Breeder genetics, Nutrigenomics, Housing, Management, Bio-security, Carcass traits, Packaging, Logistics and shelf life, all of which try to improve the profitability and the product quality.

The market is full of different feed additives working on the aspects latter to genetic improvement in breeders.

For years antibiotics and specifically antibacterial have been used on a large scale to kick up revenues and cover up management flaws. Pumping in these drugs at these rates has resulted in the pathogenic bacteria being destroyed, but also leads to the whole gastrointestinal micro floral balance instability. The era of misuse of antibiotics began. There are several views, as the use of antibiotics in livestock being good or bad. There are several reasons not to use antibiotics in livestock, the primary not being the antibiotic resistance but yes an important reason. Thus, apart from the common facts that using antibiotics may cause parallel resistance affecting human treatment regimes, it is also important for us to understand the foot print that antibiotics leave on the animal world.

The Livestock production arena is an amalgamation of bacterial opportunistic propagation driven entities. The race is already on between the eradication of these bacteria versus survival responses of these highly adaptive microbes. This is especially when we throw a cocktail of antibiotics on them. Every time zapping a bug with a new bullet does end the life of the bug, but also helps the bug to evolve a better armor, one that is non penetrable by the same bullet.  But why are we focusing on the bullet and not on the gun? Something that the bug may not even see, something that the bug is never exposed to!! The ideal route for restricting the excessive use of antibiotics is thus to improve the management practices on the farm which include impeccable bio-security. As this is not possible in all circumstances the use of anti-infective and growth promoters will always be used as a preventive and a treatment regime for under performing birds. However, we can always use a better trigger mechanism, there is middle way out. Why not use the natural responses of the bird itself fight the average management practices.

To improve the bird’s immunity and to overcome microbial challenges one should focus on certain specialized feed additives. The feed additive market carries an endless list of antibiotic re-placers which can be summarized in the categories of Acidifiers, Probiotics, Prebiotics and Phytobiotics. However, every trigger is only sensitive to a specific environment, a specific bacteria or a narrow mechanism of action. Acidifier resistance is well documented in recent literature, this with pH as low as 2.5 not proving effective against common taboo bacteria as salmonella. Probiotics work mainly in the finisher stages and farms still have to rely on antibiotics to curb the early chick mortality. Moreover, the probiotics work at variable dose with variable outcomes, some proving unsuitable to certain environments and ineffective in certain strains of poultry.  Prebiotics could have been an effective way to tackle the problem only if the cost and dosage would comply. Also, there are various supportive nutrients fuelling the pathogenic bacteria in the gut which easily overcome prebiotics.  What the industry needs is something broad spectrum and natural. An effective Phytobiotic, and yes they work, but nobody wants to rely on a trigger that differs in sensitivity every time you are in a gunfight. What we really need is an effective and reliable Phytogenic antibiotic replacer which uses only standardized herbal Phytoconstituents as ingredients.