What is the role of Hepatoprotectant in poultry?

Role of Hepatoprotectant in PoultryThe liver is the central laboratory of a chicken’s body. It is essential that this organ is kept in an excellent condition in order to maintain a healthy bird. Understanding the metabolic function and causes of disruptions in liver functions helps us to provide the birds with the right feed and health treatment. The liver contains great functional reserve capacity, which is very important in domestic animals subjected to high production requirements.

What are the functions of liver in poultry?

The liver in a chicken has several significant functions, including; bile secretion, detoxification, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, as well as several other metabolic functions.

Liver diseases

Important damage can occur before clinical signs become apparent. The clinical silence of the hepatic lesions is due its significant reserve of functional capacity, its complex and its extraordinary capacity of regeneration. Several syndromes are recognized in the poultry and a few of them are:

Hepatoencephalopathy

A medical condition characterized by neurologic symptoms caused by intoxication of the brain by products of protein digestion, namely ammonia.

Hemochromatosis

It is a disease of excessive storage of Hemosiderin (iron-containing pigment) in various body tissues.

Fatty Liver Syndrome

This condition occurs primarily in birds kept in cages, but has also been recognized as a less significant problem in birds kept in litter. It is associated with birds fed high energy diets and the first sign of the syndrome is an increase in mortality of the flock with birds in full production being found dead with pale heads.

Need for HEPATOPROTECTANT

To overcome the effects of these conditions in poultry there is a need for a hepatoprotectant / liver tonic which is a combination of lipotropic agents, liver stimulants, antioxidants, mold inhibitors and toxin binders as a complete liver tonic.

Such a unique combination is KiFAY Poultry which apart from being an amino acid optimizer also has as a hepatoprotectant effect in poultry as follows:

  • A ready source of amino acids for hepatic regeneration
  • Better utilization of fats
  • Facilitate detoxification and liver cell rejuvenation
  • Natural defense against free radicals causing cell damage, including that of liver.

Reduction in mycotoxins formation

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

An overview of Feeding Chickens for increasing Performance and Productivity

Feeding Chickens for increasing Performance and ProductivityAn essential part of raising chickens is nourishing – feeding makes up the significant cost of production and great nutrition is reflected in the bird’s performance and its productivity.

Feeding Options

The most advantageous method for feeding chickens is with a well balanced pelleted ration, regardless of whether the birds are restricted inside or permitted to range outside. Most diets contain corn for vitality, soybean meal for protein, and vitamin and other mineral supplements. Commercial rations regularly contain antibiotics to promote and enhance the development, coccidiostats for battling coccidiosis, and mold inhibitors. In any case, it is possible to acquire unmedicated encourage check nourish marks to check whether they contain feed additives. In the industry, feed is pelleted so the bird can eat more at one time. Chickens are nibblers and do visit to the nourish trough for little dinners, which requires vitality. Pelleting lessens the measure of vitality required for a feathered creature to bolster.  Distinctive rations are frequently utilized, depending upon the production stage of the bird. Starter rations are high in protein- an expensive feed ingredient. However, grower and finisher rations can be lower in protein since older birds require less. Access to clean water is important. Levels of total dissolved solids over 3000 ppm in the water can meddle with poultry well being and production.

Home-Mixed Rations

Poultry feed ingredients incorporate energy concentrates, for example, oats, corn, grain, wheat, sorghum, and milling by-products. Protein concentrates incorporate soybean meal and other oilseed meals, cottonseed meals, animal protein sources, grain legumes, for example, dry beans, peas, and alfalfa. Grains are generally ground to enhance absorbability. Since protein is one of the most expensive feed ingredients, the industry utilizes focused on rations and decrease the measure of protein in the eating routine as the chickens develop; notwithstanding, it may not be cost-effective to have diverse eating diets for starters, growers, and finishers. The vitamin pre – mix is normally included, however, might be diminished by utilizing horse feed. Different plants also give vitamins in their leaves, hulls, and wheat. Fish oil can give vitamins A and D. The yeast gives a ration of the B vitamins. UV light is a decent source of vitamin D for going chickens. Trace mineral is normally added to poultry diets, yet different sources can give minerals. Meat and bone meal is a fantastic source of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, and additionally being a decent protein source. Probiotics are once in a while given to the chicks during placement and before transportation.

Certified Organic Diets

Home-mixed diets are especially valuable to certified natural poultry producers. In spite of the fact that pre-mixed natural poultry rations are accessible for procurement, they can be costly and maybe ought to be dispatched from long distances.

Feed Additives in the Diet

Feed additives are added to improve the efficiency of broiler growth, laying capacity of layers, prevent diseases and to promote health. The feed additives used in poultry diet include amino acids, vitamins, antimicrobials, pH control agent, and enzymes. Protein and amino acids form an important building block in poultry nutrition. The quality of protein is graded by its illegal amino acid digestibility, the higher the digestibility the better is the ingredient as a protein source. Deficiency of essential amino acids results in retarded growth or reduced egg size or reduced egg production.

To help the industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of the birds, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche products with a brand name; “KiFAY”- an Amino Acid Optimiser.  It is an all in one product for optimizing your poultry feed and production.

MOA OF KiFAY

It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved  ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.

The reason why we should use KiFAY:-

  • In broilers it increases the weight by improving feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein utilization.
  • In layers KiFAY enhances the quality and other parameters of egg like;
  • Egg shell weight by 9-10%, Egg shell thickness by 15%, Egg weight 8%, Egg length by 15-16%, Egg width by 32-33%
  • It also reduces faecal nitrogen deposition by improving protein turnover.
  • It acts as a hepatoprotectant by inhibiting free radicals causing damage to the liver cells.
  • It optimizes immunomodulation by enhancing Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)

Thus KiFAY acts as a performance enhancer in poultry.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

IS GOAT NUTRITION OPTIMAL?

Improves the milk quality & milk production rateGoats are animals belonging to the browsers (herbivore) category and prefer eating brushy plants and some other woody, weedy plants found in the ranges. Nutritional requirements of goats are determined by their age, sex, breed, production system (dairy or meat), body size, climate and physiological stage. The Feeding strategies, also play a vital role and help them to meet the energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin needs depending on the condition of the goats. Goats do not depend on intensive feeding systems except some supplemental feeding during growth, lactation, pregnancy and winter. Goats belong to the small ruminant group, this group utilizes protein most efficiently provided with a supply of amino acids that also matches tissue requirements are utilized for growth in ruminants. The amino acid composition of body protein helps to determine the balance of amino acids required for growth in mammals. The ideal protein is a perfect ratio between individual all amino acids and nitrogen required for optimal performance.

To help the livestock industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of ruminants, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited take our privilege to introduce one of our niche products with a brand name; “KiFAY”an Amino Acid Optimizer.  It is an all in one product for optimizing the overall performance and productivity of goats and other meat producing animals.

MOA OF KiFAY

It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved  ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.

The reason why we should use KiFAY

  • It improves hair and skin quality of the flock.
  • Enhances lean meat production.
  • Also, it improves the digestibility of the food helping in more protein synthesis and weight gain.
  • It improves the milk quality and increases milk production rate
  • It acts as an immunity enhancer.

Thus KiFAY is an all in one performance enhancer!!

Cattle Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Essentiality of good management practices in livestock production

Good management practices in livestock productionThe Livestock industry is an important component of the agricultural sector of any country producing meat, eggs, beef, pork and other quality products of animal origin.

This industry plays a vital role in market development and use of technology. Food safety is universally recognized as a public health priority. It requires a holistic approach, from production to consumption. Various aspects of animal production are at risk from biological, chemical and physical agents. These agents can enter food-producing animals and animal products through a wide variety of exposure points in the production, with high potential risks for the consumers. Therefore, it is essential that Good Management Practices are followed in the meat production to address these hazards. Following are the recommended Good Practices that should be followed on the farm.

Sanitation and hygiene:
All movable equipment like feeders, waterers and hovers should be removed from the house, cleaned and disinfected. The interior as well as the exterior of the house should be cleaned under pressure. The house should be disinfected with any commercial disinfectant solution at the recommended concentration.

Brooder Management-

Brooder house – It should be draft-free, rain-proof and protected against predators. Brooding pens should have windows for adequate ventilation. Availability of dust particles in the environment irritates the respiratory tract of the chicks. Also dust is one of the vehicles for disease transmission. The presence of more moisture in the environment causes ammonia fumes which irritate the respiratory tract and eyes.

Brooding Temperature – Heating is very much essential to provide the right temperature in the brooder house.  Too high or too low temperature slows down growth and causes mortality. During the first week the temperature should be 95°F (35°C) which may be reduced by 5°F per week during each successive week till 70°F (21·10C). The brooder should be switched on for at least 24 hours before the chicks arrive. As a rule of thumb the temperature inside the brooder house should be approximately 20°F (-6·7°C) below the brooder temperature.

Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Meeting the requirements of livestock nutrition is extremely important to maintain acceptable performance of neonatal, growing, finishing and breeding animals. An optimal nutritional program should ensure adequate intakes of amino acids (essential and nonessential), carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins by animals through a supplementation program that corrects deficiencies in basal diets. 22 amino acids are needed to form body protein, some of which can be synthesized by the bird (non-essential), whereas others cannot be made at all or in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs (essential). Essential amino acids must be supplied by the diet, and a sufficient amount of non-essential amino acids must also be supplied to prevent the conversion of essential amino acids into non-essential amino acid. These essential amino acids must therefore be fed in order to supply the building blocks needed in the synthesis of body proteins thereby supporting growth.

Some other Farm management practices include, Litter management, Water Sanitization, Animal health management, Veterinary medicines and biological, Environment and infrastructure, Animal and product handling, etc.

We at Vinayak Ingredients Pvt. Ltd. Aim at making the livestock production free from all the major hazards for safe and healthy production and consumption of the meat. We believe in “HERBOCORE” process and our aim is to manufacture safe, eco-sustainable and cost effective solutions for the benefits of the industry”.

Our wide variety of products include:

  1. KiFAY : An Amino Acid Optimizer. It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus, improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.
  2. HERBOFLOXIN : Natural antibiotic growth promoter. It improves the number of good bacteria in the gut and simultaneously reduces the pathogenic bacteria.
  3. MUCOFORT : An Advance Mucin enhancer and respiratory tonic.
  4. ESSENTIOLITT : It is an anti-vector solution. Controls and eradicates all stages of the insects and also ensures an unfavorable environment for them to prevent re-infestation.
  5. VINTOXO : An excellent Toxin Binder which absorbs various mycotoxins on the surface with a CEC of 35 to 45 mEq per 100gms, it is able to absorb polar as well as non-polar mycotoxins and clears it out of the system.

Poultry Feed Supplements, Cattle Feed Supplements, Swine Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Maintaining protein nutrition in chickens

Maintaining protein nutrition in chickens - Vinayak IngredientsNecrotic enteritis in broiler chickens can be caused due to the increased level of protein, 2-6 weeks post hatching. This is because of the overgrowth of 
C. Perfringens in the small digestive system, increasing from a typical level of 104 CFU to 107 Or 109 CFU per gram of digestion and causing harmful diseases.

With the increased dietary protein level, there will likewise be an increased activity of the trypsin in the small digestive system. This will, thusly, prompt to the speedy arrival of coccidia from their oocyte which will lead so dynamic as to be less responsive to immunization.

In situations where such bacterial and protozoan are probably going to prevail, it might then be advantageous, among different measures, to reduce the supply of protein and maintain it underneath the prescribed range. It is likewise important to consider the amino acid balance of the protein source to be utilized. Methionine and glycine, for instance, have been known to empower growth and establishment of C. Perfringens and different pathogens in the gut. Accordingly, the utilization of protein sources having over the top measures of these amino acids ought to be limited.

Additionally, there are some protein sources, for example, cottonseed meal, raw soybean, and flax cakes, which contain varying measures of anti-nutritional factors, for example, trypsin inhibitors, gossypol, and glucosides. At the point when ingested by the bird, these components would then apply some damaging consequences for the small digestive tract, in this manner impeding the safe mechanical assembly having nearby as well as systemic defensive capacities. Excessive utilization of such protein sources in the diet ought to, therefore, be avoided as well.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Monitoring Chicken Feed for Enhanced Productivity and Performance

Monitoring Chicken Feed for Enhanced Productivity and PerformanceAn essential part of raising chickens is nourishing – feeding makes up the significant cost of production and great nutrition is reflected in the bird’s performance and its productivity.

Feeding Options
The most advantageous method for feeding chickens is with a well balanced pelleted ration, regardless of whether the birds are restricted inside or permitted to range outside. Most diets contain corn for vitality, soybean meal for protein, and vitamin and other mineral supplements. Commercial rations regularly contain antibiotics to promote and enhance the development, coccidiostats for battling coccidiosis, and mold inhibitors. In any case, it is possible to acquire unmedicated encourage check nourish marks to check whether they contain feed additives. In the industry, feed is pelleted so the bird can eat more at one time. Chickens are nibblers and do visit to the nourish trough for little dinners, which requires vitality. Pelleting lessens the measure of vitality required for a feathered creature to bolster. Distinctive rations are frequently utilized, depending upon the production stage of the bird. Starter rations are high in protein- an expensive feed ingredient. However, grower and finisher rations can be lower in protein since older birds require less. Access to clean water is important. Levels of total dissolved solids over 3000 ppm in the water can meddle with poultry wellbeing and production.

Home-Mixed Rations
Poultry feed ingredients incorporate energy concentrates, for example, oats, corn, grain, wheat, sorghum, and milling by-products. Protein concentrates incorporate soybean meal and other oilseed meals, cottonseed meals, animal protein sources, grain legumes, for example, dry beans, peas, and alfalfa. Grains are generally ground to enhance absorbability. Since protein is one of the most expensive feed ingredients, the industry utilizes focused on rations and decrease the measure of protein in the eating routine as the chickens develop; notwithstanding, it may not be cost-effective to have diverse eating diets for starters, growers, and finishers. The Vitamin pre-mix is normally included, however, might be diminished by utilizing horse feed. Different plants also give vitamins in their leaves, hulls, and wheats. Fish oil can give vitamins A and D. The yeast gives a ration of the B vitamins. UV light is a decent source of vitamin D for going chickens. Trace mineral is normally added to poultry diets, yet different sources can give minerals. Meat and bone meal is a fantastic source of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, and additionally being a decent protein source. Probiotics are once in a while given to the chicks during placement and before transportation.

Certified Organic Diets
Home-mixed diets are especially valuable to certified natural poultry producers. In spite of the fact that pre-mixed natural poultry rations are accessible for procurement, they can be costly and maybe ought to be dispatched from long distances.

Feed Additives in the Diet
Feed additives are added to improve the efficiency of broiler growth, laying capacity of layers, prevent diseases and to promote health. The feed additives used in poultry diet include amino acids, vitamins, antimicrobials, pH control agent, and enzymes. Protein and amino acids form an important building block in poultry nutrition. The quality of protein is graded by its illegal amino acid digestibility, the higher the digestibility the better is the ingredient as a protein source. Deficiency of essential amino acids results in retarded growth or reduced egg size or reduced egg production.

To help the industry in balancing the protein turnover and amino-acid optimization of the birds, We at Vinayak Ingredients (India) Private Limited introduces one of our niche products with a brand name; “KiFAY”- an Amino Acid Optimizer. It is an all in one product for optimizing your poultry feed and production.

MOA OF KiFAY : It improves the availability of insulin receptors, which are potential binding sites for IGF-1 and thus potentiating the action of IGF-1 resulting in improved ileal digestibility of various amino acids in the feed and also improves the their uptake from blood. Thus improved amino acid accretion from blood results in a better protein turnover. It also increases the efficacy and production of IGF-1 by stimulating insulin production, resulting in increased bio-availability of IGF-1 in the liver.

The reason why we should use KiFAY:-

  • In broilers it increases the weight by improving feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein utilization.
  • In layers KiFAY enhances the quality and other parameters of egg like;
  • Egg shell weight by 9-10%, Egg shell thickness by 15%, Egg weight 8%, Egg length from 15-16%, Egg width from 32-33%
  • It also reduces faecal nitrogen deposition by improving protein turnover.
  • It acts as a hepatoprotectant by inhibiting free radicals causing damage to the liver cells.
  • It optimizes immunomodulation by enhancing Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)

Thus KiFAY acts as a performance enhancer in poultry.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Tricks to Optimise Feed Intake in Young Broilers

Tricks to Optimise Feed Intake in Young BroilersToday, feed represents up to 70% of aggregate generation costs. That is the reason productivity of utilization is a standout amongst the most vital elements as farmers hope to look after efficiency. The most widely recognized technique for broilers is feed conversion ratio (FCR), computed by the measure of feed required per kilogram of body weight pick up, and ought to be as low as could be allowed. For the duration of the life of the broiler, the best FCR is found in the initial five to seven days, because of low or no heat generation in chicks. These results in a lower calorific expense and a general lower support cost.  Another contributing component to the lower FCR is the fat and protein from the yolk sac. Be that as it may if early feed utilization is constrained, chicks will utilize the protein from the yolk sac for energy rather than development.

Feeding During Brooding

For best results, it is important to guarantee adequate access to feed. The most imperative piece of arrangement for brooding, along these lines, is to give adequate feeding space to the birds by having supplemental chick trays or potentially chick paper. In the event that chick trays are utilized, there ought to be one plate for every 50 chicks, uniformly disseminated all through the brooding territory. Invigorate the trays a few times each day with the new feed, as doing this once per day doesn’t fortify feed allow enough.  On the fourth day, the trays can be drawn nearer to the feed system, before evacuating them at day seven. At the point when utilizing chick paper, no less than half of the brooding territory ought to be secured with a paper sort sufficiently solid to last until in any event day 5. The paper should be set close to the drinking system. To guarantee that all arrangements have the greatest advantage, a simple crop-full assessment ought to be done the morning after placement. A sample of no less than 100 chicks from three positions in the house is required. Without a doubt the base of chicks with full yields ought to be 85% as of now. This basic assessment will let you know as to whether you have an adequate supplementary feed accessible.

Seven-Day Body weight

The significance of feed intake during the initial seven days can’t be over-accentuated. It is the main chance to increase such development and give the overall performance. Achieving higher seven-day body weights for the most part results in higher body weights toward the end of the flock, better consistency and lower mortality through less culling. It has likewise been demonstrated that higher seven-day body weights impact the general FCR of a broiler. There is a straight impact, demonstrating that an expansion in seven-day body weight lessens the FCR.

Consistency Matters

Numerous components diminish FCR connected with expanding seven-day body weight, however the most critical one is better consistency. Expanded feed accessibility lessens the quantity of non-starters and helps littler chicks adjust. In a flock with a normal seven-day weight of 182g, approximately 12% of chicks will at present be beneath 160g. The flock could enhance the feed admission of weaker chicks by expanding supplementary feeding space and feed accessibility, raising the general execution. The Consistency of a flock begins from the first hour after arrangement and the impact of uniform feed admission cannot be corrected later. To take full advantage of the advanced broilers’ hereditary potential, chicks ought to never need to look for their next meal. Guaranteeing great feed accessibility will guarantee utilization at an early age, bringing about effective seven-day body weights, along these lines establishing the framework for the best feed effectiveness.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Neonatal Poultry Nutrition

Neonatal Poultry NutritionOver the last five decades, improvements in nutrition and genetic selection have reduced the time required to produce a 2 Kg broiler within 1.7 FCR. The neonatal period is defined as the first seven days of the production cycle after hatch. It is a crucial time when the chick requires special management and nutrition. Efforts to control metabolic disorders such as ascites and leg problems have led to recommending early feed restriction during the first two weeks post-hatch. Thus, it is essential to know the effect of poultry management practices on subsequent chick development. A paper presented in the ohio university explains the importance of the relationship of neonatal nutrition to muscle development. Muscle growth and development can be divided into two distinct periods: hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

Hyperplasia is an embryonic period characterized by proliferation of muscle fiber number, whereas hypertrophy is a post-hatch muscle growth, which results in the enlargement of existing muscle fibers. Nutritional deprivation has a significant effect on the myoblast cells. Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of an immediate post-hatch, feed restriction on the breast muscle formation. The increased number of nuclei in muscle fibers correlates with increased synthesis of protein and muscle fiber size enlargement. Myoblast cells are extremely responsive to the mitogenic effects of their environment, including nutrition. A 42-day length of studies conducted with feed restriction on the neonatal chickens showed a significant difference morphologically in the development and structure of the breast muscle between the feed restricted and unrestricted diet treatments. It also increased deposition of fat in the breast muscle of the birds with the 20% feed restriction.

Conclusion:

Nutrient deprivation in the first few days after hatch may interfere with normal muscle protein development in broiler chicks. However, if you believe that flavor and juiciness follow the fat, there may be some benefit from early feed restriction.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilers?

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF1 and protein accretion in broilers - Vinayak IngredientsA comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation), Treatment 1 (containing added DL-methionine) and Treatment2 (containing KiFAY and without DL-methionine supplementation). The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio) were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks. Analysis of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) were performed at the end of the study.

The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY performed significantly (p<0.001) better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY treated birds. The study shows an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001) in KiFAY than other treatments. Serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the treatment2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001). The KiFAY supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd

Effect of Protein and Amino Acids on Fat Deposition in Poultry

Effect of Protein and Amino Acids on Fat Deposition in Poultry - Vinayak IngredientsThe abdominal fat tissue is very important in chickens due to its rapid growth as compared with other fat tissues. Most fatty acids are produced in the liver and stored as triglycerides in adipose tissues. Thus, the abdominal fat is a reliable parameter for estimating total body fat content as it directly correlates with the total lipid content in avian species. Nutritional factors play a key role in regulating body fat deposition. Therefore, this article discusses the effect of two such nutritional factors viz., protein and amino acids on the abdominal fat content and the mechanism of regulating abdominal fat deposition in poultry in a beneficial manner.

Protein is the most expensive component of poultry diets.

The increase in the dietary protein content improves the daily weight gain, carcass yield, and meat quality by reducing body fat deposition and increasing protein content. A report shows that reducing dietary protein level during the starter, grower, and finisher phase, and compared with normal-protein diets as recommended by NRC, 1994 led to a significant increase in the abdominal fat content. An analogous study where increasing dietary protein level in the diets of broiler chickens in all three phases led to a significant reduction in abdominal fat deposition compared with diets formulated according to NRC (1994) causing lean broiler chickens. Therefore, dietary protein content must play a direct or indirect role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. In 2002, it was found that reducing dietary protein content upregulates malic enzyme MRNA expression increases malic enzyme activity in the liver of broilers compared with the control, and vice versa. Further study also showed that increasing dietary protein content caused a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme MRNA expression in the livers of broiler chickens. Therefore, dietary protein level directly affects body fat deposition. Thus, it is important to suffice the protein requirements of birds to produce high-quality meat with low-fat deposition.

At present, only methionine, lysine, and arginine are known to beneficially regulate body fat deposition in poultry. Therefore, the addition of these amino acids in poultry diets should be ensured to prevent unnecessary fat deposition. Among these, methionine is the first limiting amino acid in poultry diet. It is an essential amino acid as it directly affects on growth performance and helps in producing lean meat. A report shows that inclusion of L-methionine in poultry diet leads to a significant reduction in body fat content. The effect of dietary L-methionine in reducing the fat deposition may be associated with changes in lipolysis and lipogenesis. Lysine also has a prominent role in meat quality by increasing protein deposition, reducing the water-holding capacity, and enhancing muscle pH. The lysine supplementation in poultry diets significantly enhances lean meat production. A meat-type ducks fed with lysine-deficient diet gave significant high abdominal fat percentage while the inclusion of lysine eliminated this effect. Hence, the addition of lysine in poultry diets promotes lean meat production by reducing carcass fatness via lipogenesis inhibition.

Another essential amino acid is the arginine which plays multiple roles in poultry production, implicated in the reduction of carcass fat deposition. A study reports a significant reduction in the abdominal fat content in Japanese quails at 42 days of age, 2.0% arginine supplementation on day zero of incubation. A corresponding study reported that providing 1.0% more arginine in addition to the NRC (1994) recommendations reduces the abdominal fat content by decreasing the activities of enzymes involved lipogenesis. In avian species, therefore, dietary L-arginine supplementation inhibits certain hepatic enzymes, which causes a reduction in the abdominal fat content by reducing the size of abdominal adipose cells.

Hence, the fat-reducing effects of protein and certain amino acids have not been fully clear. Thus, this article makes an effort to elucidate our current understanding of the mechanism related to the effects of protein and amino acids that beneficially regulate abdominal fat deposition in poultry.

Poultry Feed Supplements Manufacturers and Suppliers in India – Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd