Coccidiosis … that single word strikes fear in every poultry farmer’s mind- and it should be, as coccidiosis is one of the heights mortality causing pathogen for the poultry industry.
Looking in the broad sense, coccidiosis is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the microscopic parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. Most often spread by bringing infected hens into the flock, or by wild birds, it is then picked up chickens through contact with the infected feces or through drinking contaminated water. It generally manifests itself as diarrhea, bloody droppings (red poop), ruffled feathers, poor appetite, and lethargy and results in an inability to absorb nutrients in food. The disease has a high mortality rate in chicks and death usually occurs within a week of first seeing symptoms. Even if a bird survives, permanent intestinal tissue damage often occurs. As the immune system is centered in the intestine of poultry, survivors could have a compromised immune system for life.
Anticoccidial chemicals, coccidiosis, and coccidiostats being generally used as a mainstream strategy to control avian coccidiosis but these strategies have very high maintenance costs and show residual drug resistance in meat. Therefore all these conditions encouraged the development of alternative natural control strategies. Phytoremidies, i.e. use of medical local herbs like Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, and Tinospora cordifolia, etc, have shown Immunomodulator, coccidiostat, and anti-inflammatory in actions. These herbs help eliminate negative factors of microbial infections. They interact with the life cycle of Eimeria and inhibit the speculation of coccidia effectively. Active phytochemicals from these herbs have a therapeutic effect and act as immunomodulatory agents that boost antimicrobial immune responses to uphold the homeostasis of poultry health. These can be utilized as an alternative method to reinforce immune response against multiple avian coccidiosis species.
The phytoconstituents are non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) in nature. They act as a therapeutic agent by generating the pharmacological response to subside the inflammation in the gut caused due to intracellular coccidial infiltration.
We focus on the recent advances in the understanding of the potential of these herbs and their compounds to prevent and treat avian coccidiosis. However, the actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of these herbal ingredients against avian coccidiosis are the subjects to study more…