How to increase SNF in Milk Production | Know about SNF – Solids Not Fat


Solids Not Fat (SNF) consists of everything except milk fat and water. That means total solids content in the entire residue left after complete evaporation of water from milk. This includes fat protein, lactose and mineral matter. Normally cow milk contains 8.5% SNF whereas buffalo milk contains 9.0% SNF

Crisis in Indian Dairy Industry & Effect on Milk Production

Milk Composition based on fat percentage and SNF percentage in milk yield has played a huge role in dairy product price. Thus the recent crisis in Indian dairy industry has led Government of India to come up with strict norms to determine milk price rates based on fat and SNF percentages.

How to Improve SNF and Fat percentage in Milk Production

Due to high price of raw materials and lack of scientific farming knowledge, the cost of production of milk is increasing a day by day. Increasing milk fat and Solids Not Fat (SNF) level in milk will increase the selling for milk and thus maximise profit in dairy farming.

Proper feeding management in dairy cows and buffaloes is one of the vital factors that will yield better milk production with maximum Fat and SNF content. Knowledge on nutrient requirement and balanced nutrition will improve the productivity of animals.

Role of Cattle Feed supplement in managing milk yield and composition

All factors in milk composition work in synergy. Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd, with its extensive R&D has introduced SNF Milk Booster Cattle Feed Supplement – “Kifay Ruminant” a revolutionary product that is a perfect solution to proper feed management supplement for cattle to improve immunity, provide nutrition & minerals, increase fat and SNF percentage in milk yield.

Cattle Feed Supplement Manufacturers and Suppliers India - Milk SNF Booster Supplement Suppleirs - Vinayak Ingredients Indian Pvt Ltd

Litter Amendment System

Litter Amendment System

As the litter goes, so goes the flock! This aphorism holds a strong meaning as it associates with management of the litter and its effect on air quality.Most of the time,litter quality often reflects how well one has managed these systems. This article deals with the litter treatments which are critical in management of the farm and control the spread of the pathogens. Hopefully, the following piece of information will aid in a better knowledge of some important management concepts with built up litter.

The most prevalent obnoxious gas in poultry housing is ammonia, among others producing irritation to the eyes and reducing resistance to infection in poultry. Ammonia is a colourless gas produced from the evolution of uric acid decomposition in chicken manure. Microbial decomposition converts uric acid to ammonia and carbon dioxide which is volatilise into the atmosphere. Many factors influence the growth of these uric acid degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) present in the litter such as temperature, moisture content and pH. The limiting ammonia concentration in poultry houses is recommended to be less than 25 ppm. Blake and Hess, in their report state about continuous exposure to ammonia concentrations of 10 ppm damaging bird’s respiratory system, making them susceptible to opportunistic infectious diseases.

Using litter amendments could be one of the solutions to the above problem. Litter amendment system can acts as an ammonia binder which help in improving the exposure of ammonia to the birds and reduces release of this greenhouse gas into the environment. Litter amendment systems also having disinfectant properties may be used as bio security enhancers in the poultry house. They also reduce the energy consumption by reducing ventilation required during winter season.Moore et al. have reported that the application of alum in broiler houses considerably reduced ammonia levels within three weeks. It stated better poultry performance due to lower ammonia levels in the early growth stage. Furthermore, it lowered the electric bills, as little ventilation was not required to reduce ammonia. Overall, the benefits of using alum were approximately double the cost of investment (To read more results were obtained when poultry guard was used as a litter amendment, reported by McWard and Taylor. In addition, it also reduces darkling beetle populations and salmonella levels in the litter (To read more McWard, G. W., and D. R. Taylor. 2000. Acidified clay litter amendment. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 9:518-529).

The litter amendment product, USM-98, marketed by UAP Southwest of Pittsburg, Texas, uses a combination of beneficial microbes and enzymes. The manufacturers of these products claim that such treatments allow microbes to work in sub optimal conditions in the litter or improve the conditions in the litter to enhance performance of the microbes. Venting the produced ammonia during layout will result in lower ammonia levels when the chicks are placed in the house later. This result in reduction of ammonia concentration, reduced mortality rate, and improved the bird performance. P.S. the above product is not published in any scientific journals. Also, venting ammonia into the atmosphere pollutes the environment.

Using amendments may offer other economic and environmental benefits: 
• Reducing ammonia loss will increase the nutrient value of the litter while improving air quality.
• Reducing ammonia production may reduce ventilation needs and, hence, energy costs in houses that have inadequate ventilation.
• Odor complaints from neighbours may be reduced.
• Pathogen and pest levels in the house may be reduced.
• Water quality may improve because the use of alum can reduce the loss of soluble phosphorus and heavy metals in the runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

Chemicals are also added to the litter to either reduce microbial growth or inhibit the mode of action, there by slowing the decomposition of uric acid. For instance, Phenyl phosphorodiamidate inhibits urease activity, reducing conversion of urea into ammonia. The main disadvantage is that inhibitors are currently not economically feasible to growers.A natural clay mineral, clinoptilolite (a type of zeolite) along with peat tend to adsorb ammonia. However, it has received mix reviews. One report states fair reductions in ammonia, while other study reports large increase in ammonia levels.Alkaline materials such as agricultural lime (CaCO3), hydrated or slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), or burnt lime (CaO) increase litter alkalinity and convert more of the ammonium in the litter into ammonia gas.However, this method releases lot of ammonia into the atmosphere, diminishing the fertiliser value of the litter, giving negative impact on the environment. Furthermore, if the alkaline material is not completely utilised during the layout period between flocks, ammonia levels in the house may increase when fresh manure is added to the litter.

To limit ammonia production, litter moisture below 30%;the litter pH should be below 7.0; and temperature at the level of the broiler’s satisfaction. Acidifies reduce ammonia levels in the poultry house and improve in-house air quality.This not only improves bird performance and health but also may positively impact worker health. Acidifies may decrease microbial loads in the litter, as well as pathogen dissemination to processing plants through the birds, thus becoming a useful bio-security control in the overall Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. Further acidifies also decrease darkling beetle populations at higher application rates. Finally, a well balanced fertiliser (high N/P ratio) will meet to the requirements of most crops. Overall, acidifiers are the most effective and widely used type of poultry litter amendment.

Currently, there is a growing interest in regulating ammonia emissions from animal facilities at each levels of the poultry industry. Many research studies has shown that litter amendments reduce ammonia levels in the poultry house and improve bird performance and health along with other economic and environmental benefits as well. In brief, the way in which we control built up litter will continue to modify as we are challenged with developing poultry production, welfare,food safety and environmental concerns.

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

All We Need To Know About Methionine Requirements in Chickens

We all know amino acids are building blocks of life. The application of amino acids in feed industry has been since four decades. Amino acids for feed now play key role in improving the efficiency of protein utilisation in animal feeding. Among others, let’s discuss DL-Methionine since it’s the first limiting amino acid, followed by L-Lysine and L-Threonine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid required by poultry in sufficient amount for optimum body weight gain or egg production. Deficiency of methionine therefore causes retarded growth in broilers and reduced egg production in layers. On the other hand, surplus of methionine has been associated with atherosclerosis. Methionine is also a major constituent in feather formation. Its deficiency leads to poor feather growth and rise in the feather pecking in order to obtain adequate methionine. This behaviour can lead to cannibalism among the flocks. This could be the worst nightmare ever possible to farmers. To our rescue, synthetic DL-Methionine began finding its way into poultry industry since late 1950s. Till now broiler requirements are been met by the use of synthetic methionine since it’s affordable to the farmers. By now we can sense that how adverse effect can DL-methionine have on chickens.

The question that comes to our mind is- How safe is synthetic Methionine to poultry?

To answer this, we first need to know little background chemistry about DL-Methionine. DL-methionine contains two isomers L-form and its mirror image D-form in equal ratios. However, only L-methionine can be utilized to synthesizer protein. The second half D-methionine first needs to be converted to L form and then it’s available to use. To our surprise, D-methionine is not converted completely but around 90% in chickens. So what happens to the rest of the 10%? So if you learnt what happens in calves, it seems that it may result in elevated plasma methionine, then it could be evident that traces of DL-methionine can be found in the carcasses of Methionine fed broilers. (J. P. Felix D’Mello, Amino acids in animal nutrition, CABI publishing, UK).

Poultry methionine requirements have always been into controversies. It has been heavily criticized for the use of synthetic amino acid in the feed to increase the bird growth rather than its health. Moreover, synthetic methionine disturbs the whole system of nitrogen cycle in the poultry. This has led to the prohibition on the use of synthetic methionine in animal feed formulation by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.

But not forgetting that a well balanced dietary protein and amino acids for poultry is a high priority issue among nutritionists for various reasons. First, cost of proteins and individual amino acids can be expensive nutrients in feed per unit weight. The price fluctuation of DL-Methionine and supply chain discrepancies result is massive shift of feed prices and reduces your profit. Therefore, selecting the appropriate level of amino acids becomes your critical economic decision. You will reach this goal only if you are dosing your methionine correctly. Inconsistency can never be avoided in an industry where raw materials are heavily applied. Therefore whatever you add in your feed diet, will surely affect your main objective. Therefore, addition of supplemental methionine in feed formulation requires precision. Second, the environmental pollution issues about nitrogen excretion from the poultry farming which can cause pollution of soil, air and water. A study shows that one percent reduction of crude protein in a diet can yield 8 to 10% reduction of nitrogen excretion. Hence it can be said that 3 to 4% reduction of crude protein with supplementation of first, second and third limiting amino acids can yield same growth performance with 30 to 40% reduction of nitrogen emission. And third, poor quality dietary proteins and amino acids can have major negative impact in heat stress conditions which is because of inefficient amino acid digestibility.

Well, many of the scientists are in constant discovery or invention to combat these hurdles. Moritz along with its colleagues in its article explains the use of feed restriction to increase commercial broiler forage intake. Thus, the plant material consumed along with any insects if available can be sufficient to obtain methionine. To read more see (Moritz, J. S., A. S. Parsons, N. P. Buchanan, N. J. Baker, J. Jaczynski, O. J. Gekara and W. B. Bryan. 2005. Synthetic methionine and feed restriction effects on performance and meat quality of organically reared broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14:521–535). However, the availability of the methionine solely depends on the forage composition and its management. Also providing large scale flocks with quality pasture would be difficult. In addition, the forage quality and quantity will differ significantly time to time.

Halder and Roy have compared the performance of broilers between no added methionine group, synthetic methionine fed group and herbal derived methionine group (Halder, G. and B. Roy, 2007. Effect of herbal or synthetic methionine on performance, cost benefit ratio, meat and feather quality of broiler chicken. Int. J. Agric. Res., 2: 987-996). The results show that liver triglycerides in methionine fed group were evidently high in contrast to herbal derived methionine group. Overall performance in both methionine-supplemented groups was found similar (higher than the methionine deficient group). However, the quality of the protein makes it difficult in digestibility in the intestine.

To summarise, there is still no proper way out to this crisis. Remember, Science is never done, it’s always changing. The goal of science is to devise framework, to describe how things works together, to study things are right now so that we can predict how things will be in the future. And so if we learn to trust science in all its fuzziness and incompleteness, it can prove to be best tool to find solution to these problems. After all, animal welfare, managing food safety and environmental issues are our major concerns.

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility

Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility

Kifay, the natural amino acid optimiser is the product to watch as it has the capability to enhance the ileal amino acid digestibility due to the specific natural ingredients in its composition.

Amino acid supplementation in poultry is considered as an essential part of poultry nutrition. Methionine is the first limiting amino acid in poultry important for optimum growth, feed conversion and immunity. The protein nutrition is directly related to the illeal amino acid digestibility; this term can be divided further into apparent illeal amino acid digestibility or true amino acid digestibility.

The debate is already on as to what type of digestibility is to be considered while making a feed formulation; although it is undeniable that digestibility of protein is utmost important and all digestible amino acid systems are superior to use of total amino acid system in feed formulation.

The amino acids contained in feed-stuffs are not fully available to animal. It is therefore more efficient to formulate diets using values for digestible amino acids rather than total amino acids. The optimisation of amino acid supply leads to increased animal performance and, because the ingested protein is better balanced for animal’s requirements, nitrogen excretion is reduced.

Essentiolitt – Poultry House Disinfectant

Wet litter bedding problem in poultry

Essentiolitt poultry is a litter amendment system and an efficient ammonia binder that improves bio-security on the farm. It is to be used for broilers, layers and breeders.

It reduces wetness of the litter and destroys pathogenic micro flora in the litter by acting as a disinfectant. It acts as odour control program and accentuates the growth of beneficial micro flora. Essentiolitt is a combination of specially modified clay, aluminium sulphate and a blend of essential oils targeted to destroy zoonotic micro flora like, Salmonella, Clostridia, E.coli and Campylobacter species in the litter which can be an important source of infection for the birds. The essential oils in the formulation are targeted to control urea and uric acid converting bacteria thus controlling ammonia emissions, respiratory infections and also improve the nitrogen content of the litter which makes it an important manure source.

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin-Natural Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Herbofloxin is our answer to the long standing problem of antibiotic inclusions in feed and water of livestock. It is a unique micro emulsified formulation of phytoactive ingredients working as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal solutions for monogastric organisms.

Herbofloxin eliminates chemicals such as, water sanitizers, pH regulators, feed disinfectants and antibiotics from Livestock production. It improves gut immune barriers to resist colonization by pathological microflora. Herbofloxin is a complete solution for providing a barrier against infective agents and safeguards the entry of zoonotic organisms in the food chain. Herbofloxin reduces gut colonization by E.coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter and thus reducing the zoonosis of the same in the meat. It is a growth promoter resulting in healthy weight gain.

Antibiotics!!! Do we need them?

Antibiotics - Do the livestock need them

Ever wondered why antibiotics are good, bad or evil? Well if you need an orientation session with the use and misuse of antibiotics, this is your space to read.

We all know definitions are important, so here we go. For a technically sound person the word ‘Antibiotics’ are agents which work against microorganisms. To put it into lay man perspective, these are substances/compounds which kill or slow down the growth of harmful bacteria, fungi or similar bugs that thrive on other living or dead things.  By the end of that “Layman term” explanation we would have understood that there isn’t a layman term for antibiotics and you don’t have to Einstein or for that matter Sheldon your way (Courtesy big bang theory) to understand the science behind antibiotics.

To make things clearer lets classify them into four practical categories (Oh I would love to classify them into seven different ways so that you need to classify the classification types to complicate matters, but this not what we intend to graduate in).

  • Chemically – Molecular structures (Beta lactams, Quinones, Aminoglycosides……)
  • Target microorganisms (Antibacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti protozoal… )
  • Mechanism of action(Cell wall, enzyme, DNA….)
  • Evolutionary ( 1st generation, 2nd gen, New world )

Use of Antibiotics in the feed industry

Firstly not all antibiotics those are used as feed additives for animals and used in humans for treatment. The importance of this fact is rivaling many issues on banning of antibiotics as feed additives.  We will touch base with this statement again when we deal with the statement of antibiotic resistance. In the livestock industry antibiotics are used primarily for three reasons

  1. Treatment of bacterial, fungal and other infectious diseases.
  2. Prevention of infections , as a precautionary in feed compulsion.
  • Growth promotion,to improve final body weight of birds raised for meat.

Many antibiotics used in treatment of livestock used for meat purpose are the same antibiotics used in humans. These include a major share of quinolones. Although the figures below in the table reflect otherwise one should also consider that these antibiotics given under the treatment regime are given for a small 4 or 5 day schedule and often used in very small quantities. If proper withdrawal periods are used these antibiotics are excreted from the body of the animal well before slaughter. The table below shows us the volume compartmentalisation of antibiotic use.

Use by volume Humans Animal
Pencilins 44 % 6 %
Cephalasporins 15% 1%
Sulfa 14% 3%
Quinolones 9% less than 1%
Macrolides 5% 4%
Tetracyclines 4% 41%
Ionophores 0% 30%

In the next blog we learn more about antibiotic resistance and how it impacts us …

Make your Jams and Jellies Appealing with our Natural Colour-Ecocol

Make your Jams and Jellies Appealing with our Natural Colour-Ecocol

Jams and jellies are essential preparations when the summer fruits start showing their colors. Everyone can savor on the preserves throughout the year. Many homemakers begin preparing jars of jams when the stone fruit and berries start appearing in abundance. It takes nothing more than a few minutes for the process, from cutting the fruits to scooping up the jam into jars. This year you should switch to natural and safe colors by using Ecocol.

Everyone in the family will be enjoying jams every day, dipping into the jar of bright coloured, fresh jam, enjoying it with yogurt, cocktail or topping up the ice cream. Natural Ecocol is available in splendid colors of blueberries, strawberries, peaches and raspberries, along with sweet natural flavors available along with it. Preparing your jams and jellies is not difficult, but you must make it safe with natural food ingredients. Canning jars, fruit, natural sweeteners and colours, and lemon juice are all that are required.

Besides the natural colour, it is recommended to switch to natural sweeteners. It takes almost a cup of sugar in the preparation of a pint of strawberry jam. Imagine the amount of sugar you will be taking when enjoying your favourite jelly. Thus, it makes more sense to switch to sweeteners made from natural ingredients.

Using natural flavors, colors and sweeteners can help you avoid artificial alternatives. Instead of gulping down a cup of sugar, you will be able to take natural sugar and colors that will not play havoc with your body. In order to get the most out of the fruit, you can cook it for longer duration. Add some lemon juice to maintain the acidity. Pectin is a naturally occurring sugar and this method of preparation can help extract more of it from the fruits.

Green apples, cranberries, blackberries, plums, concord grapes, lemon rind and gooseberries are rich in pectin. Use Ecocol and cook these fruits in larger amounts without the need to add extra pectin. This method can help turn the fruits into gel. But when preparing jams or jellies with strawberries, pineapple, peaches, or cherries, it is recommend to use pectin or additional gelling substance. These fruits don’t contain enough pectin. But when preparing jams with sweet apples and pears, it is recommended to add only lemon juice because they contain high percentage of pectin but lack acid.

Whatever method and whichever fruits you use, make sure that the colors and flavors are always natural. Ecocol is available in all the colours you can think of, enabling you to create a wide collection of coloured jellies for everyone to enjoy. So the next time you decide to prepare jam or jellies, it is recommended to use the above-mentioned method. Cook the fruit for longer to extract the pectin from it and use only natural colors, sweeteners and natural flavors to get the desired effect. Using natural will help keep your loved ones safe while allowing everyone to enjoy the flavors of the season without the need to take lots of unwanted sugar.

Zest up the cuisine with Natural Food Flavors and Colours

Zest up to your Natural food colour and flavor

Natural food flavors and colors can zest up your cuisine by adding more value to your preparations. The benefit with natural flavors and colors is that they are safe. This is why they are standardized to flavor and color value, and you don’t have to worry about the health- promoting compounds used. You can cherish the fact that the commonly used natural food colors include carotenoid colors from turmeric and paprika, and anthocyanin colors like purple carrot and grape.

Yellow and orange may be the most widely used colors, but then there is the red color, which is usually sourced from lycopene found in tomato. Thus, whether you are using yellow or orange or red, you are playing with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals and not any unwanted chemical compounds that could play havoc with your health.

Lutein and beta-carotene may be experience than artificial flavors and colors, but they can meet all your needs for yellow and orange colors for all foods and beverages. It will be no surprise if most of the natural colorants you use contain these safe and useful compounds that have been found to help improve many natural processes in the body.

When it comes to sweet dishes, taste preferences are mostly driven by nostalgia. You can find wide variety of nostalgic dessert flavors that bring you relief from an otherwise hectic lifestyle. Using these flavors, you will be able to experience the nostalgic appeal that reminds you of the good old days when your mother used to prepare dishes for you. Think of anything from hot chocolate to peanut butter, and you can find everything in safe and natural flavors.

Then you could play with a wide variety of Mediterranean flavors. Greek yogurt, cinnamon,honey, and fennel seed are increasingly becoming popular when it comes to sweet dishes. Beyond the spice-dominated Indian cuisine, its Mediterranean counterpart has a rich history of a healthy cuisine. When you choose natural Mediterranean flavors, you will be indulging in something  that brings many health benefits. If you are health conscious, you cannot ignore the benefits of Mediterranean cuisine, which has been found to be an important factor in helping the people from the region live longer than their European counterparts.

There is a growing trend for savory flavors, being mostly driven by cultural effects. The Mexican and Latin cultures have been seen to influence a lot of consumer tastes, off late. More and more people are using sofrito, aji amarillo, and mole in natural flavors. You could either follow these trends or explore your own local cuisines with natural alternatives which are safe yet rich.

The importance of natural spice flavors have not only created an impact in commercial and household kitchens but they have also found their way into the world of beverages. Jalapeno, cardamom, chai and other spice flavors are just few of the names which are catching up with the trend. Natural may be relatively expensive at the time but they have their importance. Besides being safe, you will also find them to be nutritious, something that you cannot expect from conventional artificial options.

Anti Antibiotics – The Way Ahead

Anti Antibiotics – The Way AheadFor years together Livestock has been an in separable part of humanity. The cheapest and most readily available source of protein.  The methods of rearing livestock have evolved in leaps; this is clearly evident in case of the poultry industry. The word broiler is now taken as Cobb or Ross and to keep up with the protein deficit of the world new strains are being introduced to cultivate meat faster and in an efficient way.

In this process several mechanisms have been devised to improve the bird, the environment or the final product. This introduces us to fields of Breeder genetics, Nutrigenomics, Housing, Management, Bio-security, Carcass traits, Packaging, Logistics and shelf life, all of which try to improve the profitability and the product quality.

The market is full of different feed additives working on the aspects latter to genetic improvement in breeders. For years antibiotics and specifically antibacterial have been used on a large scale to kick up revenues and cover up management flaws. Pumping in these drugs at these rates has resulted in the pathogenic bacteria being destroyed but also leads to the whole gastrointestinal micro floral balance instability. The era of misuse of antibiotics began. There are several views, as the use of antibiotics in livestock being good or bad. There are several reasons not to use antibiotics in livestock, the primary not being the antibiotic resistance but yes an important reason. Thus, apart from the common facts that using antibiotics may cause parallel resistance affecting human treatment regimes, it is also important for us to understand the foot print that antibiotics leave on the animal world.

The Livestock production arena is an amalgamation of bacterial opportunistic propagation driven entities. The race is already on between the eradication of these bacteria versus survival responses of these highly adaptive microbes. This is especially when we throw a cocktail of antibiotics on them. Every time zapping a bug with a new bullet does end the life of the bug, but also helps the bug to evolve a better armor, one that is non penetrable by the same bullet.  But why are we focusing on the bullet and not on the gun? Something that the bug may not even see, something that the bug is never exposed to!! The ideal route for restricting the excessive use of antibiotics is thus to improve the management practices on the farm which include impeccable bio-security. As this is not possible in all circumstances the use of anti-infective and growth promoters will always be used as a preventive and a treatment regime for under performing birds. However, we can always use a better trigger mechanism, there is middle way out. Why not use the natural responses of the bird itself fight the average management practices.

To improve the bird’s immunity and to overcome microbial challenges one should focus on certain specialised feed additives. The feed additive market carries an endless list of antibiotic re-placers which can be summarised in the categories of Acidifiers, Probiotics, Prebiotics and Phytobiotics. However, every trigger is only sensitive to a specific environment, a specific bacteria or a narrow mechanism of action. Acidifier resistance is well documented in recent literature, this with pH as low as 2.5 not proving effective against common taboo bacteria as salmonella. Probiotics work mainly in the finisher stages and farms still have to rely on antibiotics to curb the early chick mortality. Moreover, the probiotics work at variable dose with variable outcomes, some proving unsuitable to certain environments and ineffective in certain strains of poultry.  Prebiotics could have been an effective way to tackle the problem only if the cost and dosage would comply. Also there are various supportive nutrients fuelling the pathogenic bacteria in the gut which easily overcome prebiotics.  What the industry needs is something broad spectrum and natural. An effective Phytobiotic, and yes they work, but nobody wants to rely on a trigger that differs in sensitivity every time you are in a gunfight. What we really need is an effective and reliable Phytogenic antibiotic replacer which uses only standardised herbal Phytoconstituents as ingredients.