How to increase SNF in Milk Production | Know about SNF – Solids Not Fat

Milk Nutrition Booster Supplement Kifay Ruminant SNF Booster

Solids Not Fat (SNF) consists of everything except milk fat and water. That means total solids content in the entire residue left after complete evaporation of water from milk. This includes fat protein, lactose and mineral matter. Normally cow milk contains 8.5% SNF whereas buffalo milk contains 9.0% SNF

Crisis in Indian Dairy Industry & Effect on Milk Production

Milk Composition based on fat percentage and SNF percentage in milk yield has played a huge role in dairy product price. Thus the recent crisis in Indian dairy industry has led Government of India to come up with strict norms to determine milk price rates based on fat and SNF percentages.

How to Improve SNF and Fat percentage in Milk Production

Due to high price of raw materials and lack of scientific farming knowledge, the cost of production of milk is increasing a day by day. Increasing milk fat and Solids Not Fat (SNF) level in milk will increase the selling for milk and thus maximise profit in dairy farming.

Proper feeding management in dairy cows and buffaloes is one of the vital factors that will yield better milk production with maximum Fat and SNF content. Knowledge on nutrient requirement and balanced nutrition will improve the productivity of animals.

Role of Cattle Feed supplement in managing milk yield and composition

All factors in milk composition work in synergy. Vinayak Ingredients India Pvt Ltd, with its extensive R&D has introduced SNF Milk Booster Cattle Feed Supplement – “Kifay Ruminant” a revolutionary product that is a perfect solution to proper feed management supplement for cattle to improve immunity, provide nutrition & minerals, increase fat and SNF percentage in milk yield.

Cattle Feed Supplement Manufacturers and Suppliers India - Milk SNF Booster Supplement Suppleirs - Vinayak Ingredients Indian Pvt Ltd

Is It Necessary To Premix?

Is It Necessary To Premix in livestock feedA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilise the coefficient of variety (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterised as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal get no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) ought to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices covers covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix: Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturised scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entrainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effectively and proficiently by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement: This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blend. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilised as carriers. Be that as it may, the adsorptive properties of ground grain and oil seed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed: Finished feed might be prepared as follows: 1) include the grain portion of the diet to the blender; 2) add the dry supplement  to the centre of the blender (if possible, include supplement the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released); 3) permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute; 4) add forage part of the diet; 5) add fat segment of the diet; 6) add molasses of the diet; 7) permit to blend for the time determined for the blender.

4) Adding Molasses: Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses is especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degree Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing

Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel to the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of crossed contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that affect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from supplier.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of methodology followed to guarantee quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and the Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program— are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

Role of Antioxidants in Feed

Role of Antioxidants in FeedAntioxidants play a major role in animal health, production and performance. This is due to the detrimental effects of radicals and toxic products of their metabolism on various metabolic processes. It is a well known fact that oxidative stress is involved in many degenerative disorders. The oxidative free radicals are therefore considered as pathobiochemicals mechanism for initiating or progression of various diseases. The prooxidant-antioxidant balance can be regulated by optimal nutrient uptake or providing herbal antibiotics. Thus, the essential step in maintaining the balance between the oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in the animal body would be to boost the antioxidant capacity by optimising the dietary intake of antioxidants.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant. It is an important anti-stress agent. However, it can be easily oxidized. Sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is required in collagen biosynthesis and protein metabolism.

Vitamin E is the found in the biological membranes and lipid droplets. Vitamin E is absorbed in the small intestine with various efficacious depending on the diet composition, level of supplementation, age, sex and other individual characteristics of animals. It is the main chain-breaking antioxidant in biological systems.

Carotenoid is a natural pigment, responsible for yellow, orange and sometimes red pigmentation’s in plants, insects, birds and marine animals. They possess antioxidant activity. They have some health promoting properties, including immune system modulation. They are found in some plant-derived feed ingredients.

Manganese has an essential part of a range of enzymes taking part in antioxidant protection, bone growth and egg shell formation carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including processing of cholesterol.

Zinc is the second most abundant trace element trace element in mammals and they take part in antioxidant defence as an integral part of SOD, hormone secretion, keratin generation and epithelial tissue integrity immune function.

Iron has a vital role in antioxidant defence as an essential component of catalase, energy and protein metabolism, hence respiratory carrier, electron transport, oxidation-reduction reaction.

Antibiotic Alternative & Growth Promoter

Antibiotic Alternative & Growth PromoterAnimal diseases have a large impact on the economy of the livestock industry having total estimated global losses up to $2773 million annually. The disease may have a direct effect on performance through decreased production of milk, wool, or eggs, reduced fertility, delays in reaching maturation of reproductive system, decreased draught power or decreased weight of cull animals. These epidemics have the direct effect on farmers, consequently affecting agricultural sector and the national economy.
There is no doubt in the fact that certain dietary antibiotics have been playing a pivotal role in promoting good growth and health in animal production and feed conversion efficiency. However, the emergence of drug resistance among pathogens and public concerns of antibiotic residues in meat has led the European Commission (EC) to draw a critical decision to ultimately ban (January 1st, 2006), the marketing and application of antibiotics growth promoters (AGP) as feed additive (EC Regulation No. 1831/20031). This verdict was taken on the basis of the precautionary principle: ‘Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation’ (Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration, 19922).

Will the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed have the desired effect of reducing the overall level of antimicrobial use in animals? At the moment, this looks to be highly unlikely, as statistics continue to show a sudden rise in the use of AGP used for remedial purposes, even though there is a significant reduction in the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. In countries such as the USA the use of AGP in the poultry industry has been formally declined. This has led to increase in FCR and rise in the incidence of necrotic enteritis. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an acute infection caused by Clostridium species. This is characterized by excessive dehydration, severe intestinal tissue necrosis with an increase in death rate. Such sick birds that do not have access to appropriate treatment are likely to carry much heavier loads of bacteria at the time of processing. The escalating usage of treatment antibiotics is essential for the effective control of prevalent diseases such as coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in poultry, diarrhoea and inflammation of ileum in pigs, which have serious consequences and may badly affect production performance. From a veterinary point of view, withdrawing AGPs and in-feed anticoccidials may open the door to more enteric pathogen invasion.
In light of recent publicity surrounding the use of antibiotics by livestock and poultry industries, there are reports claiming to be alternatives to antibiotics which have the direct or indirect effect on microflora. Ideally, the alternatives to AGP should function in a same way as growth promoters without hindering its beneficial effects i.e.

(1) By reducing the amount of toxins and other metabolites produced by gram-positive bacteria;

(2) By increasing the intestinal wall permeability thereby improving absorption of nutrients;

(3) By blocking enzymes secreted by the pathogens thereby reducing the incidence and severity of sub-clinical infections.

Few of the most widely used alternatives for AGP along with their mode of action is briefly discussed:

Organic acids
Organic acids are widely distributed in animal tissues formed through catabolism of carbohydrates by microbial fermentation mainly in the caecum of the poultry intestine. The antibacterial nature of organic acid is mainly due to the low pH. The environmental pH change affects the dissociation of the acid which enhances the antimicrobial effect. The dissociated form of acid molecules freely diffuses through the semi-permeable membrane of microorganisms into the cell cytoplasm. Once in the cell, the acid molecules will disrupt the cell enzymes and nutrient transport mechanism.
To read more: Adams, C., 1999. Nutricines: Food Components in Health and Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, UK.

Probiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics are mixed cultures of live bacteria which improve the growth and characteristics of the indigenous microflora thereby benefiting the host’. The most well-known group of probiotics is lactic acid bacteria. Most of the probiotic strains produce specific metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide, secondary metabolites, and organic fatty acids. It also stimulates the immune system while interacting with the various receptor sites. On the other hand, Prebiotic are non-digestible feed ingredients with selective effects on the intestinal microflora. The mechanism of action of prebiotics as an alternative is dependent on the nature of the compound. They are feed ingredients that improve the activity of the gut microflora because of selective stimulation of the growth or metabolic activity of a limited number of intestinal micro-biota species, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus sp. Thus, they may have a similar mechanism of action as probiotics.

Herbs and essential oils
It is not an unknown fact that the herbs are used for beneficial therapeutic properties derived from their specific bio-active components. Most of the bioactive compounds of the plant are mostly secondary metabolites such as terpenoids (mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, etc.), phenolics (tannins), glycosides and alkaloids (present as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, lactones, etc).Essential oils are concentrated products with very strong aromatic fragrance produced by  these secondary metabolites. The mechanism of action of bio-active compounds on chemical constituents, biological factors and so on. Bio-active constituents derive from plants play important role in inhibiting the bacteria by inactivation of the protein, loss of function, neutralizing free radicals. The study of microbial activity of essential oils and other bio-active compounds on micro-organisms still remains area of future research.

CONCLUSION
Alternatives for AGPs are only of practical significance which improves animal performance as compared to AGPs.  Microflora stimulating and immunomodulatory compounds have potential and are used as feedstuff of feed additives. Acids, probiotics, prebiotic and herbs or essential oils are some examples of different naturally available products which are used as alternatives for AGPs. Within each product class, numerous other products are available in the market, of which some products are potentially good, for others the efficacy is not clear. Hence, this brings us to a point to describe the mechanism of actions of these useful vital compounds in a whole scientific manner that meets high grades for AGP alternatives for poultry.

Antibiotics!!! Do we need them?

Antibiotics - Do the livestock need them

Ever wondered why antibiotics are good, bad or evil? Well if you need an orientation session with the use and misuse of antibiotics, this is your space to read.

We all know definitions are important, so here we go. For a technically sound person the word ‘Antibiotics’ are agents which work against microorganisms. To put it into lay man perspective, these are substances/compounds which kill or slow down the growth of harmful bacteria, fungi or similar bugs that thrive on other living or dead things.  By the end of that “Layman term” explanation we would have understood that there isn’t a layman term for antibiotics and you don’t have to Einstein or for that matter Sheldon your way (Courtesy big bang theory) to understand the science behind antibiotics.

To make things clearer lets classify them into four practical categories (Oh I would love to classify them into seven different ways so that you need to classify the classification types to complicate matters, but this not what we intend to graduate in).

  • Chemically – Molecular structures (Beta lactams, Quinones, Aminoglycosides……)
  • Target microorganisms (Antibacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti protozoal… )
  • Mechanism of action(Cell wall, enzyme, DNA….)
  • Evolutionary ( 1st generation, 2nd gen, New world )

Use of Antibiotics in the feed industry

Firstly not all antibiotics those are used as feed additives for animals and used in humans for treatment. The importance of this fact is rivaling many issues on banning of antibiotics as feed additives.  We will touch base with this statement again when we deal with the statement of antibiotic resistance. In the livestock industry antibiotics are used primarily for three reasons

  1. Treatment of bacterial, fungal and other infectious diseases.
  2. Prevention of infections , as a precautionary in feed compulsion.
  • Growth promotion,to improve final body weight of birds raised for meat.

Many antibiotics used in treatment of livestock used for meat purpose are the same antibiotics used in humans. These include a major share of quinolones. Although the figures below in the table reflect otherwise one should also consider that these antibiotics given under the treatment regime are given for a small 4 or 5 day schedule and often used in very small quantities. If proper withdrawal periods are used these antibiotics are excreted from the body of the animal well before slaughter. The table below shows us the volume compartmentalisation of antibiotic use.

Use by volume Humans Animal
Pencilins 44 % 6 %
Cephalasporins 15% 1%
Sulfa 14% 3%
Quinolones 9% less than 1%
Macrolides 5% 4%
Tetracyclines 4% 41%
Ionophores 0% 30%

In the next blog we learn more about antibiotic resistance and how it impacts us …