5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry Production

5 Ways to Promote Healthy Poultry ProductionBio-security practices and farm hygiene are the most important measures in order to prevent the risk of disease in poultry production. So here are the quick 5 main ways that farmer should keep in mind while working on a poultry farm.

  1. It is an obvious fact that the healthy, unstressed birds to have active metabolism and effective immunity against disease. Thus, feeding birds with nutritionally balanced diet maintain a comfortable living environment and minimising fear and anxiety in the birds will help the birds to survive.
  2. Another way for eliminating the disease is the vaccination aid in preventing pathogens especially viruses by immunising the bird in such a way that it enhances the immune response when the bird is subsequently exposed to it.
  3. Poultry sanitation is the crucial step which the flock owner might normally overlook. Disinfectants are normally applied only after the equipment and the whole farm have been thoroughly cleaned. It is suggested to clean manure/used litter from the sheds and removed from the site on the same day. For the litter to be disposed of on site, the land disposal areas and sensitive areas such as farm must be separated to avoid cross contamination. Disinfectants are generally applied by sprays, aerosols and fumigation. A pest control program must be introduced to get rid of rodents and other pests.
  4. Litter amendment system is one such bio-security system that can act as an ammonia binder which helps in improving the exposure of ammonia to the birds and reduces its release into the environment. Litter amendment systems also having disinfectant properties may be used as bio-security enhancers in the poultry house. This also decreases the energy intake by lowering the ventilation needed during winter season.
  5. The farmer/workers should wear apron and boots on the farm to avoid cross contamination. Hands must wash thoroughly with soap and clean water. The number of visitors must be reduced to the farm house or get into the close contact with birds.

Is It Necessary To Premix?

Is It Necessary To Premix in livestock feedA premix is a blend of minerals, vitamins, feed supplements and diluents. The premix business is charged of the obligation of assembling a fantastic premix reliably, effectively and monetarily. The principle objective in feed mixing is to guarantee that an animal gets the majority of its figured supplement remittances consistently. Most sustain producers utilise the coefficient of variety (CV) to gauge blender execution and blend consistency. The CV is characterised as 100 * standard deviation/mean. A 5% CV is the business standard for generally fixings. An ingredient mix CV of 5% grants that an animal get no less than 90% of its planned dietary stipends 95% of the time. Be that as it may, the size of an adequate CV will change contingent upon the logical accuracy for measuring the fixing and the fixing proportion in the eating routine. The CV for a fixing test (repeatability of the explanatory system) ought to be not exactly the wanted CV for blender proficiency. With respect to ingredient ratio, the lower the ingredient concentration in the mix, the higher the CV.  Hence, the CV is generally higher for follow mineral, vitamins and medications in light of the fact that their fixing proportions are low (under 1:10,000).

A quality premix can be made just through a stringent quality affirmation program and current great assembling rehearses (cGMP). Quality affirmation is a proactive, persistent framework for observing reproducibility and dependability of an item. It incorporates all the activities undertaken to guarantee foreordained benchmarks of a quality premix. Good manufacturing practices covers covers all the areas of the production process like staff, offices, crude materials, quality affirmation checks, stock control, preparing, blending, packaging and conveyance.

Guidelines for feed formulation

1) Premix: Premix micro ingredients, for example, antibiotic growth promoters, vitamins, and minerals with a reasonable diluent before their consideration in a supplement. Diluents serve to dilute the micro ingredient and consequently encourage the rate of blending. Diluents ought to be dry with a specific end goal to allow a more uniform scattering of individual miniaturised scale fixing particles. Dampness must be maintained a strategic distance from as it might bring about entrainment and bunching (hygroscopic mixes, for example, urea are not appropriate diluents). Nonetheless, it can be preformed all the more effectively and proficiently by method for a small portable cylinder mixer (cement mixer). Defensive apparel, gloves and clean veil ought to be worn when when handling micro ingredients.

2) Supplement: This supplement will contain the premix, an appropriate Carriers, and the remaining minor dry ingredients in the diet routine including minerals, urea, and supplemental protein sources. Carriers are feed ingredients which join with the small scale fixings in the premix to change their physical attributes. By adsorbing to the carrier, the fine particles of the micro ingredients are permitted to move all the more quickly and consistently through the blend. This quick development of micro ingredients through the blend is vital to guarantee satisfactory dispersion before addition of molasses. The carriers ought to have physical properties practically identical to ground grain or oil seed dinners. For sure, both of these might be utilised as carriers. Be that as it may, the adsorptive properties of ground grain and oil seed suppers are low. This constraint might be overcome by first consolidating 2% fat to the ground grain or oil seed feast before mixing with the premix. In preparing the supplement, first include the carrier, and then include other major ingredients until they achieve the focal shaft line, then include the premix and other minor ingredients, lastly include the remaining major ingredients.

3) Finished feed: Finished feed might be prepared as follows: 1) include the grain portion of the diet to the blender; 2) add the dry supplement  to the centre of the blender (if possible, include supplement the inverse end of the blender to where the feed is released); 3) permit feed to blend for at least 1 minute; 4) add forage part of the diet; 5) add fat segment of the diet; 6) add molasses of the diet; 7) permit to blend for the time determined for the blender.

4) Adding Molasses: Molasses is a typical ingredient in diet formulation. However, it is very viscous and this introduces a few issues in feed mixing. Surely, if added to the diet despicably it can bring about marked increments in the CV of the micro ingredients. Dark strap molasses is especially viscous. The proficiency of mixing dark strap molasses with other dietary fixings will be improved in the event that it is initially weakened with water. The consistency of molasses is notably diminished by warming. Molasses ought not be warmed to temperatures in abundance of 43 degree Celsius, except for very short periods of time, as this may cause carmelization.

Here are some of the benefits of premixing

Accuracy of the weighting of the micro-ingredients

Micro-ingredients would require a much higher precision of weighting than macro-ingredients. That would request adjusted hardware that ought to be committed and set up particularly for micro-ingredients

Savings of blending time

As specified over, the preparation of premixes can decrease the preparing time. In fact, the weighting of the micro-ingredients can be extremely tedious and it would be more profitable to sort out this procedure in parallel to the preparation of the macro-ingredients.

Reduction of crossed contamination

The addition of diluted micro-ingredients into the system will leave lower traces than if the same micro-ingredients were incorporated pure. Also, it is simpler to clean up the premixing equipment because of its smaller size and easier access.

The Science of Feed Formulation

The Science of Feed FormulationFeed formulation requires top to bottom information of animal nutrition, especially the supplement necessities and the nutritional composition of the animal feed. It requires nutritionist with good knowledge of using certain proportions of some ingredients that affect on problems such as free flow through the mill, pellet quality of the diet, digestion of the animal feed or total gut well being of the animal.

Feed industry worldwide use 4 basic steps to produce animal feed.

  1. Receiving raw materials from supplier.
  2. Generating a feed formula based on previous authentic research.
  3. Blending all the ingredients together to prepare feed.
  4. Packaging and labelling feed to be shipped for commercial or retail purposes.

Quality control is an arrangement of methodology followed to guarantee quality of a product and all factors involved. Quality assurance starts with examination of incoming ingredients. Damage by heat, molds, climate, insects, adulterant and contaminants can be detected by trained technical supports. Blending quality can likewise be assessed quickly. The presence or absence of micro ingredients, minerals and vitamins are established by observation or by micro spot-testing.

Laboratory testing is a critical part of any quality control program since it quantifies particular segments of a feed/ingredient sample to guarantee that it meets quality determinations. Tests include physical, chemical, biological and other electronic measurements to determine the quality of product in contrast with a prescribed standard.

Liquid feed is used in dairy industry to feed cattle and provide a well-balanced mixture of nutritional supplements in a molasses base, which can be distributed in a feed taken or added to another form of feed, is that the proteins promote the probiotic microorganism in the rumen, which contribute to the breakdown of fiber and forage.

Feed manufacturers must follow regulations represented by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA is in charge of the regulation of feed and implementation of policies through the state government and the Association of American Feed Control Officials. Various feed certification programs—such as the American Feed Industry Association’s Safe Feed/Safe Food Certification Program— are likewise accessible for additional compliance and regulation.

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultry?

What factors cause or predispose to respiratory disease in poultryRespiratory physiology of poultry is unique. Unlike human respiratory anatomy the avian lungs do not expand or contract on breathing. The direction of the flow of gases is unidirectional in the lungs making it more efficient in gas exchange.  The air sacs associated with the poultry respiration form a very important component for air storage during inhalation or exhalation.  The air sacs also regulate body temperature by diverting air flow to pneumatic bones for effective heat exchange.

All etiologies for respiratory disease in poultry have an aerosol mediated entry point. The contact of these agents with the capillary system associated with the lungs is brief as they are diverted to the air sac for temporary storage. Air sacculitis forms a major finding for respiratory related mortalities on post mortem examinations. Keeping these facts in mind we can list factors affecting respiratory disease as;

Environmental stress affecting breathing of the birds

a) Heat/cold stress

b) Handling stress

Immunisation failures

a) Vaccine component failure

b) Immunodeficiency

Inflammatory agents affecting respiratory system

a) Microbial etiology in bio-aerosols

b) Irritant gases and particulates

Nutritional deficiencies

a) Hypovitaminosis ( A & B 12)

b) Amino acid deficiencies

Micro Emulsions in Poultry

Micro Emulsions in PoultryMicro emulsions in Poultry are dispersion’s of oil and water with an emulsifier. They are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures. They are super solvents which improves stability and thermodynamic activity of formulation. Micro emulsions are beneficial to be used because it increases efficacy of the formulation allowing dose reduction. The average particle size of micro emulsion is 0.1 micrometer which helps in increasing the inter facial area thereby allowing active ingredient to get released easily. In poultry, micro emulsions are designed to include natural essential oils cell wall which in turn binds to mycotoxins to protect animals against mycotoxosis.

Vinayak Ingredients have introduced micro emulsion which is an alternative to antibioticsnamed as Herbofloxin. It is of natural origin prepared from essential oil of syzygium, citronella, thymus, eucalyptus. Herbofloxin has a particle size less than 0.1 micrometer which makes it easily soluble in water. It maintains poultry gut’s pH-6.5 to 6.7 which is slightly acidic. As it is a micro emulsion it has better dispersion in water, stable at 45 degree Celsius temperature and has a longer shelf life. All these factors makes it safe to be consumed by poultry without having any side effects which are otherwise usually caused by using antibiotics. Herbofloxin is natural replacer for antibiotic growth promoters.

Mechanism of action: Herbofloxin being a micro emulsion when mixed with water forms nano emulsion due to which particle size decreases further making it easier to penetrate the bacterial cell wall and disrupt it. Disruption of cell wall leads to killing of bad bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Salmonella. Thus it acts like a bacteriostatic. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory by improving mucin coverage which is a first line of defence in poultry.

Herbofloxin as a micro emulsion replaces antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, fluoroquinolones, amino glycosides and selectively modulates poultry gut to promote the beneficial microflora.

Microbiological Significance of Poultry Litter

Microbiological Significance of Poultry LitterChicken litter consists of a mixture of feces, wasted feeds, bedding materials, and feathers. Poultry manure contains critical measures of nitrogen on account of the nearness of abnormal amounts of protein and amino acids. Inferable from its high supplement content, chicken litter has been thought to be a standout amongst the most significant creature squanders as natural manure. Chicken litter is furthermore the wellspring of human pathogens, for instance, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can spoil the earth and are as frequently as could be expected under the circumstances associated with sustenance borne flare-ups. Composting of poultry waste preceding the application to horticultural area as natural manure is typically prescribed to control pathogens at last items.

Dynamic observation information on sustenance borne ailments from the United States uncover that among pathogens connected with nourishment borne flare-ups, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and L. monocytogenes are in charge of the majority of outbreaks. Salmonella spp. is the most broadly circulated pathogen in chicken litter with poultry and eggs remaining as the dominating reservoir. Amid 1998–2008, foodborne disease outbreaks brought on by Salmonella were related most usually with poultry meat items (30%) and eggs (24%).  Chicken eggs can be contaminated with Salmonella either horizontally or vertically. The contamination of egg shell can come about because of horizontal transmission, for example, fecal contact. And, vertical transmission of Salmonella has been seen in infected ovaries, oviducts, or contaminated eggs. Although just low quantities of Salmonella can defile eggs through the fecal course, these little population cannot be disregarded. Notably, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, or S. Heidelberg present in chicken defecation may infiltrate into the inside of eggs as well as multiply during storage. Salmonella is all the more regularly confined from chicken litter or fecal specimens when contrasted with different pathogens being researched and its pervasiveness level can go generally from 0 to 100%.  And the number of in chicken litter can go from 4 to 1.1 × 105 MPN/g litter.

Pathogens can be transmitted to individuals particularly through contact with poultry litter or through contaminated poultry items. Water may likewise get to be sullied either from poultry facilities or from over the top territory usage of poultry waste. Spillover can convey pathogens from the first site of animal manure-applied agricultural fields to water bodies serving as watering system, drinking, or recreational water sources. Clear knowledge of the transport of pathogens potentially present in poultry wastes and its runoff is essential for the establishment of effective control strategies to reduce the adverse effects on environment, food safety, and public health. A researcher compared two methods of poultry litter application, surface broadcast and subsurface banding, to investigate the influence of application methods on E. coli concentration in runoff from tall fescue pasture. E. coli concentration was found to be significantly higher in runoff from broadcast application than subsurface banding treatment. They inferred that subsurface banding of poultry litter into perennial grassland can incredibly lessen pathogen misfortunes in spillover when contrasted with surface-communicate application. In this manner, the customary surface-communicate use of chicken litter onto agricultural land may bring about large amounts of pathogens on the dirt surface that could be conceivably exchanged to overflow water.

Raw chicken litter has been generally connected to arable area as natural manure or soil correction to enhance the soil fertility and structure. To anticipate conceivable microbiological well being issues for the environment and food crops grown in the field, practical and compelling treatments ought to be created particularly for raw chicken litter preceding area application. Fertilising the soil, regularly utilised on farms, can inactivate substantial populations of human pathogens; nonetheless, studies have revealed that a few pathogens can survive the treating the soil procedure because of improper composting or cross-contamination. Accordingly, a little population of pathogenic cells may survive or regrow in the completed manure items under favourable conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological treatments can be different ways for pathogen inactivation however may not generally prompt the complete disposal of food borne pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based natural composts. Furthermore, some cells may become stress-adapted during build-up or composting, which cross-protect them against these subsequent treatments. Based on the hurdle concept, each kind of treatment can be used in combination with other disinfection strategies to potentiate microbial lethality. In order to effectively inactivate pathogens in chicken litter, it would be plausible to design a multi-step treatment with composting as the first step to kill large populations of pathogens, and then apply additional treatments to further eliminate the remaining cells. These systems with multiple treatments involved can be efficient in eliminating pathogens in chicken litter when proper control measures are in place and adopted.

Albeit chicken litter is viewed as a potential wellspring of food borne pathogens, this doesn’t propose that each part of the litter contains all the different sorts of pathogens that have been accounted for or that they will be available at maximally reported pervasiveness. Regardless, treatment systems ought to in any case be produced to inactivate the most safe and tenacious sorts of pathogens potentially to be experienced. Most of the studies on different techniques have attempted to reduce different bacterial pathogens or indigenous microorganisms in chicken litter or its composted products. Some estimates of pathogen reductions are uncertain and based only on limited lab studies with few pathogens, including indicator microbes (primarily fecal coliforms). However, it is still not clear whether the fate of such fecal indicator bacteria properly represents the responses of various human pathogens. In addition, not all fecal coliforms or tested pathogens emerge from animal feces, and they have some non-fecal ecological sources, which makes it harder to research the destiny of pathogens in animal wastes during different treatments. In this way, future studies ought to concentrate on assessing pathogen survival for various treatments utilising an extensive variety of conditions regularly experienced during build-up or composting.

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry Production

Main Issues to Consider for Organic Poultry ProductionIf you are considering establishing an organic poultry enterprise there are many issues you will need to think about. These are some of the most important:

Soil type: The soil needs to be relatively free draining. Heavy, wet land not only makes access difficult, it also creates more challenges for the birds;

Shelter: Poultry need a sheltered environment. Exposed locations should be avoided if possible;

Labour: Organic poultry production is more labour intensive than conventional systems; the birds are housed in smaller groups, often in mobile housing. As the houses are often moved around the farm, there may be instances where the birds are some distance from the farm buildings;

Infrastructure: Water should be available in the house (both at the brooding and rearing stages), and preferably also on the range. You will need good access all year round, to feed, observe and manage the birds. At certain points in the rotation, the houses may be some distance from the farm yard, and this may mean a significant amount of travelling, sometimes in less than ideal weather conditions;

Capital: A considerable amount of capital investment is required to establish a successful and efficient organic poultry production unit of any reasonable size. This may, depending on whether there are existing slaughter facilities available to you, also require setting up a processing unit on farm;

Feed: The move towards 100% organic ration, increasing feed prices and the emphasis organic principles place on home grown feed mean that feed is a major consideration when considering setting up or converting to an organic poultry system.

Neonatal Poultry Nutrition

Neonatal Poultry NutritionOver the last five decades improvements in nutrition and genetic selection have reduced the time required to produce a 2 Kg broiler within 1.7 FCR. The neonatal period is defined as the first seven days of the production cycle after hatch. It is a crucial time when the chick requires special management and nutrition. Efforts to control metabolic disorders such as ascites and leg problems have led to recommending early feed restriction during the first two weeks post-hatch. Thus, it is essential to know the effect of poultry management practices on subsequent chick development. A paper presented in the ohio university explains the importance of the relationship of neonatal nutrition to muscle development. Muscle growth and development can be divided into two distinct periods: hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

Hyperplasia is an embryonic period characterised by proliferation of muscle fiber number whereas hypertrophy is a post-hatch muscle growth which results in the enlargement of existing muscle fibers. Nutritional deprivation has a significant effect on the myoblast cells. Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of an immediate post-hatch feed restriction on breast muscle formation. The increased number of nuclei in muscle fibers correlates with increased synthesis of protein and muscle fiber size enlargement. Myoblast cells are extremely responsive to the mitogenic effects of their environment, including nutrition. A 42-day length of study conducted with feed restriction on the neonatal chickens showed a significant difference morphologically in the development and structure of the breast muscle between the feed restricted and unrestricted diet treatments. It also increased deposition of fat in the breast muscle of the birds with the 20% feed restriction.

Conclusion:

Nutrient deprivation in the first few days after hatch may interfere with normal muscle protein development in broiler chicks. However, if you believe that flavor and juiciness follow the fat, there may be some benefit from early feed restriction.

Six Important Measures for Poultry Farming

Six Important Measures for Poultry FarmingOver past few decades the poultry industry has shown tremendous growth to meet the increasing demand in supply of meat and eggs. However, poultry farming is associated with a variety of toxic compounds such as ammonia, pesticides, pathogens and other airborne emissions. So, here are the six measures to keep in mind when planning for poultry farming.

1. Diet

Chickens are omnivores. Therefore they should typically be fed a prepared feed that is balanced for all nutrients. However, feed consumption may increase in the winter, and decrease in the heat of the summer. An important point of poultry diet is administering access to clean and fresh water. This is especially true in the summer as they cool themselves by panting.

2. Housing

A quality pen is important to poultry farming. Chickens are descended from jungle birds, which mean they like to be up high, so a place for them to roost is important. Sheds must provide protection from the weather and predators. Their main predators are rats, owls, hawks, and cats. An enclosed space for them to stay at night is essential to their protection. It should have a heat lamp for the winter months as well as ventilation for fresh air.

3. Daily care

Chickens need to be fed and water, and changed daily. The pen must be cleaned out weekly to maintain sanitation and control odour.

4. Bird Health

Healthy birds show peculiar signs such as they are alert and active with bright eyes, and they will be moving around. The poultry droppings show firm and grayish brown coloration. If the chickens aren’t normal, start taking correct measures to cure the disease.

5. Sanitation

An important element to bird health is sanitation. The shed and outdoor area must be cleaned weekly or as needed to control manure and odour build up. The waterers and feeders should be regularly disinfected and cleaned.

6. Poultry litter management

Poultry litter is made up of waste feed, digesta, intestinal flora and mineral by-products from metabolic processes and water. This causes problems with foul odour and humidity.

So how to manage the poultry litter?

  • First method is thoroughly cleaning the shed more than once a year. This will control the odour and fly populations.
  • Second method is to pasture the chickens. Moving of shelters can be a valuable tool while pasturing chickens and reducing cleaning time.
  • A third option is composting. Composting can be done right in the chickens’ bedding.

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilers?

What is the effect of KiFAY on IGF-1 and protein accretion in broilersA comparative study was performed to investigate the efficacy of KiFAY™ as a feed additive on performance parameters, thyroid, and pancreatic hormone levels in broilers. Ninety birds (Vencobb 400) were randomly divided into three groups viz., Control (no DL-methionine supplementation), Treatment 1 (containing added DL-methionine) and Treatment2 (containing KiFAY™ and without DL-methionine supplementation). The performance parameters (weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed consumption ratio) were recorded and calculated during the whole study of 4 weeks. Analysis of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) were performed at the end of the study.

The results show that birds on supplementation of KiFAY™ performed significantly (p<0.001) better than other treatments. The weekly body weight, body weight gain, feed in-take and feed consumption ratio improved in KiFAY™ treated birds. The study shows an increase in insulin and IGF1 levels (p<0.001) in KiFAY™ than other treatments. Serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in the treatment2 were higher than other treatments (p<0.001). The KiFAY™ supplementation was able to improve performance with associated responses at a hormonal level in broilers.