Common enemies of shrimp farming: Growth retardation, EHP and White feces syndrome

What are the different challenges and the future of sustainable shrimp farming?

The shrimp farming industry globally faces numerous challenges, most importantly various viral, bacterial and fungal diseases; also, the need for additional, novel ingredients that will be needed to manufacture and support growing demand for aquafeeds; and environmental impact, markets, and investment issues.

EHP a risk factor for other shrimp diseases

The intracellular, hepatopancreatic microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) has been reported in cultured black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei) in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and India, as well as other Southeast Asia countries. EHP causes growth retardation and increased size variability, and in more advanced stages, infected shrimp have soft shells and exhibit lethargy, reduced feeding, and empty midguts. Currently, EHP is diagnosed by histology, In-situ hybridization, and PCR.

Some Asian shrimp farming countries have seen an increase of bacterial problems contributing to hepatopancreas Vibriosis, which has been “running mortality syndrome” and “white feces syndrome (WFS).” Shrimp affected by these conditions display septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN).

In many cases, the sizes of black tiger prawns, as well as whiteleg shrimp, do not grow at the end of the first farming month to the beginning of the second month. This issue makes shrimp farmers concerned and causes difficulties in farming.

Which are the reasons why shrimp don’t grow or grow slowly?

  • Poor quality of breeds and heterogeneous breeds
  • Shrimp stunted due to Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and EHP diseases
  • Shrimp has intestinal diseases or white feces disease
  • Shrimp farming with high density but not meeting the technical requirements
  • Unsuitable or unguaranteed feed
  • Quality of pond environment, including water quality and pond bottoms
  • Using antibiotics inappropriately leading to its resistance

Therefore, depending on each specific cause of slow growth in shrimp, farmers must have timely measures.

Experience shows that good treatment of pond bottoms, secured water sources, safe farming areas, and selected high-quality breeds can help avoid slow growth in shrimp. Along with that, farmers also need to know how to manage good water quality, clean pond bottom, minimize pathogens that have the opportunity to penetrate into ponds, and choose reputable shrimp feed to prevent stunting.

Rehpairo, amino acid optimizer for healthy hepatopancreas in shrimp

Rehpairo, is a revolutionary state of the art feed supplement with extraordinary antimicrobial properties. It is meticulously designed for shrimps to battle against EHP, HPM and WFS affected shrimps.

Diseases and aqua feed ingredients are undoubtedly the most important challenges currently faced by the shrimp industry. Organically originated, environment-friendly and easily administrable feature of the supplement makes it one of its kind special. Rehpairo has concurred over its peers and proved in all challenging conditions during rigorous experimental trials like ABW gain, Survival rate, Salinity and Hardness, Stocking Density, pH, the amino and fatty acid profile of the shrimp flesh for its enhanced nutritional characteristics.

Above all, different variants of Rehpairo have also been upgraded for HERB Shrimp farming with additive sensory and color.

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Advance newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

newborn calves and colostrum management, why is it necessary?

Colostrum management and the composition of fluid fed; the use of various additives such as prebiotics, probiotics, and proteins from hyperimmunized eggs or plasma proteins; and housing can all influence the health of newborn calves.

Which are The Common Culprits of Neonatal Calves?

It is well documented that dairy calves are extremely susceptible to enteric diseases and mortality during the first few weeks of life. The latest reports from the USDA’s National Animal Health and Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2007) report that the national mortality rate of heifer calves from 48 hour of life to weaning is approximately 7.8 to 10.8 %.

Producer perceived records indicate that scours account for 56.5 to 60.5 % of all pre-weaned deaths. Approximately ¼ of all pre-weaned calves are therapeutically treated for scours, and the major causes of death from scours are either dehydration or the pathogen gains access to the blood and causes septicemia. The high incidences of disease indicate we have much to learn about improving gastrointestinal disease resistance among pre-weaned calves. In addition, some data indicates that early life nutrition can have long-term impacts on leukocyte responses and disease resistance.

How does Neonatal Care Compound Long Term Profits?

It is well known that calves are future herd, may it be for dairy or beef market. Thus, the performance of calves is totally dependent on the nutritional and managemental practices during first three months. It plays a key role in the economy of farms because they increase operating costs and if compromised it can adversely affect long-term productivity of the animal. The maintenance of calf health and optimizing their growth are pivotal objectives especially at early stages of life.

Newborn calves are immunologically naive at birth. They have had no chance to enhance adaptive immunity by ‘‘experience’’ because of the protective environment in the womb, which also limits the activation of phagocytes and their entry into the tissues. The ingestion of colostrum is essential for providing neonates with immunologic protection during at least the first 2 to 4 weeks of life. Colostrum is composed primarily of antibodies, cytokines, and leucocytes. Calves that ingest colostrum shortly after birth have significant concentrations of immunoglobulin in serum, whereas colostrum-deprived calves have only trace amounts of immunoglobulin during the first 3 days of life.

Use of Feed Additives in Early Calf Nutrition

The developmental immaturity of the immune system of the neonatal calf presents a predisposing factor toward increased morbidity and mortality. As nutrition of calf is crucial many feed additives are being used in calf’s diet. With the restricted use or ban of dietary antimicrobial agents the trend is towards more ‘natural’ animal production systems. Phytochemicals,
prebiotics, probiotics with rich sources of essential vitamins and minerals can influence microorganisms through an anti-microbial activity or through a favorable stimulation of the microflora and favors healthy growth.

Neostart, Necessary Neonatal Care

Why Neostart? It is a supplement exclusively designed for newborn calves to fulfil all essential nutrients’ need. When calves are stressed, their appetite and digestibility often decrease; meanwhile, the nutritional demand of their growing bodies increases. This leads to the loss of appetite, depressed activity, suppressed immune system, reduced growth rates and digestive disorders. This is the sensitive period for the calves where Neostart plays a key role.

What does Neostart contain? Energy in the form of digestible sugars and essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, multi-strain probiotics to seed digestive tract with beneficial microflora, prebiotics and natural colostrum. Its indications are at birth and weaning, during stress and transportation, post-antibiotic therapy, and in digestive disorders in young ones. It is available in powder and paste form for reliable and easy administration.

Kindly follow Neostart link to go onto the literature of the product and write us on [email protected] for more details.

The Fundamentals of Swine Respiratory Diseases, You Should Know!

The Fundamentals of Swine Respiratory Diseases, You Should Know!

Respiratory diseases in pigs is undoubtedly the most important health concern for swine producers today. It is the leading cause of mortality in the nursery and grower-finisher stages of pigs, surveyed by National Animal Health Monitoring System. Recent studies have reported prevalence of pneumonia in half of the population at slaughter.

What are the primary problems considered in swine industry worldwide?

Respiratory infections in swine is often the result of a combination of primary and opportunistic pathogens. Adverse environmental and managemental conditions play an important role in the respiratory disease complex. Porcine Respiratory Complex is the interaction of viral, bacterial, and adverse managemental conditions, describes pneumonia of multiple etiology causing clinical disease and failure to gain weight later in the finishing process (15 to 20 weeks of age).

In Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), depending on PRRD virus strain, dose, and immune status, some farms may be sub-clinically infected with the virus while others experience severe reproductive and respiratory disease.


Primary pathogens include Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as the viral agents, such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus and Swine Influenza virus. Common secondary invaders include Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Actinobacillus suis and Salmonella choleraesuis.

Environmental factors that contribute to Swine Respiratory Disease include:

  • Overcrowding
  • Frequent mixing of pigs
  • High humidity
  • Dust
  • High ammonia levels
  • Temperature fluctuation

Working to minimize these factors can help improve pig health.

Relievo, the holistic herbal respiratory relief

It is a combination of phytochemicals having antimicrobial and respiratory stimulant properties. It strengthens defense mechanism and functioning of respiratory system. It alleviates signs and stress in respiratory diseases with its decongestant, antitussive and expectorant actions.

The antient herbal preparation allows respiratory lining to produce healthy mucus to expel the inflammatory and fibrous discharges. Its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory properties give rapid relief which reduces mortalities and maintains optimum performance in swine.

To know more about the product, click on Relievo and write us on [email protected] for more details.